30 thoughts on “Cognitive Psychology”

  1. Human sensory system is adoptive in the sense, with increased exposure to the stimuli, our sensory registors get accustamised to the stimuli and allocates less resources to control it’s effect on us and with time stimuli no longer feels interfering.
    For instance, when there is loud noise and you are trying your best to control hearing to it because you think it is unbearable and interfering in your studies. However, after sometimes, you get accustomised to it and you feel it is not so interfering you as it was in initial stage, it is because of sensory adoration.
    Similarly, on entering pool of cold water for bath, initial it may seem unbearable. But after sometimes due to sensory aspiration, we get used to it.
    Hence, sensory adoptation help us to adopt to the environment.

    1. Rather to address the evaluator, you should address to yourself. Write we at the place of you.
      Secondly, what do you mean by sensory adoption, I don’t get. In my knowledge, it is SENSORY ADAPTATION…..
      Only after this, it could be evaluated.

  2. Human sensory system is adaptive in the sense that as stimulus changes the whole system brings a change inside so as to bring itself to a normal constant sensation.
    This physical energy of a stimulus varies and as per variation the sensory input is changed then these inputs are converted to electrical signal for neuron to transfer which remains constant there after.
    A good example is shrinking of retina on sudden increase in brightness. It’s trying to reduce the stimulus.
    Further when the high intensity light becomes continues the Cons (a specialised cell for brightness) gets activated, taking the command from Cons ( a specialised cell for darkness). And there after the brighter light is new normal for sensory system.
    This way it adjusts itself to changing physical stimulus.
    This adaptation helps us to move around different environment with changing stimulus intensity.

  3. Senses unlike mechanical sensors register stimuli not only on the basis of stimuli characteristics but also depends on how stimuli is interpreted by brain.

    On one hand, the momentary lapse which is essential for sensory register to respond to subsequent stimuli makes intervening stimuli to not get registered. On the other, constant stimuli seems to draw less attention as time lapses, making registers to identify but not process stimuli further. For example, sensory adaptation to smell results in decrease in sensitivity by 70% in first minute. This is disadvantageous when there are harmful stimuli in environment.

    Sensory adaptation is largely studied in vision where eye shows dark and light adaptations. For example, rodopsin chemical which takes time to manufacture in low light conditions is essential to see in the dark. Hence, it takes time to see in dark whereas iris adjusts to allow low light to enter when we shift from dark to light conditions.

    Even though we ourselves direct much of attentional processes, some contrasting stimuli triggers automatic processing to watch out for dangers. Adaptation helps to remain undisturbed by irrelevant stimuli so that our cognitive capacities can be utilised for useful purposes.

    In research on blind persons who showed acute sensitivity to hearing, an example of inter-sensory adaptation is seen where PET imaging revealed that such participants could accurately picture environment in brain based on sound stimuli, they showed activity in visual cortex similar to normal individuals.

  4. Sensory or neural adaptation is a property of our sensory system to adapt to a constantly present stimulus in the environment. For example, clothes that we wear cause friction against our body, but because of sensory adaptation by our skin we do not feel the friction. In the absence of sensory adaptation the same friction would make us uncomfortable.
    We are surrounded by numerous stimuli and it is not possible for us to attend to all of them. Sensory adaptation helps us to attend required stimulus while the other unnecessary stimuli go into the background. This increases our cognitive economy and avoids stimulus overload.
    For example, while we try to read in a room, there are background noises like sound of the fan, outside traffic, etc. These do not bother us and we are able to read with utmost attention. This happens because our senses have adapted to the surrounding noises.
    Thus sensory adaptation helps to make our life easier.

  5. Human sensory system is very sensitive to change, and it is the flexibility and adaptability of our sensory system that enables us to perceive coherently and appropriately when the stimulus changes. Sensory adaptation is a dynamic process by which our sense organs respond to changes in stimulus and then adjust accordingly.

    There are several examples highlighting the presence of sensory adaptation in everyday life, spanning all five senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.

    Visual adaptation is perhaps the commonest of all. Whenever one enters in a dark room from a well-lit environment, eyes take a while to adjust to the dim lighting and gradually start to see. This is called dark adaptation. Similarly, entering from a dark lighting condition to bright light takes a while for eyes to adjust. This adaptation is, however, faster as compared to dark adaptation, and is called light adaptation. Specialized cells in the eyes, rods and cones, make this happen.

    Similarly, people living near factories, or nearby places with high traffic density, do not notice the constant hum of noise in the background due to noise adaptation.

    A good example of touch adaptation would be the stark temperature difference one feels while putting one’s hand in cold water, but gradually adjusting to the temperature after a few minutes.

    Many people living in rural India use cow dung as fuel for cooking. As a result, their olfactory sense is very well-adapted to the typical smell of smoke that accompanies the combustion process. A person who is not exposed to that particular kind of smell would notice it very strongly when s/he first encounters it. This is a good example of smell adaptation.

    Lastly, in India, and elsewhere in the world, different people prefer different cuisines. In general, people from Gujarat prefer sweet food. A person from Eastern Uttar Pradesh may find a Gujarati dish to be very sweet as per her/his taste preference, whereas someone from Gujarat would not notice anything while eating the same dish due to taste adaptation.

  6. Sensory adaptation occurs when there is change in stimuli neural cells send signals to various sensory organs through chemical receptors and messengers to adapt to a particular stimuli. It can occur in mili seconds or over days and months depending upon the nature of stimuli. E.g we keep our hand on a cold surface we feel cold however after a minute or so we don’t because our skin cells adapt to the surface temperature, similarly mammals have dark adaption ability I.e ability to adjust to brightness of surrounding. Therefore human sensory system is adaptive .

  7. Human sensory system is adaptive. Examples of this are as follows-
    1. We don’t feel sensation of clothes that we are wearing.
    2. We feel normal sometime after entering in cold water to swim.
    3. When we enter cinema hall initially we are not able to see but gradually our eyes adapt to dark environment.
    4. We don’t feel sensation of our tongue in an uncomfortable way.
    5. When we spray room freshener in room initially we detect strong smell but gradually adaptation to it.
    6. When we drink tea after eating lots of sweets, we feel tea to be sugarless since get adapted to excessive sweet taste.

  8. ‘Humans are adaptive animals’.
    This clearly tells that humans response to changes and becomes adaptive to it. This they do with the use of their 5 sensory organs i.e. ear,eyes,nose, tongue and skin. Humans show response to stimuli through nervous system with the help of reflex actions.
    These sense organs work with the help of sensory system. And these sensory system in turns control all the sensory organs.
    With the environment our sensory system undergoes the change and then remains constant here after. Therefore, human sensory system is adaptive
    Eg. While going for shopping in a mall during summers body feel warm in the outside environment but still we can walk comfortably down the roads, but on entering the mall the temperature reduces because of the air conditioners and now in this situation our body senses reduction in temperature and makes us feel cool. Then again after leaving the mall our body can sense the temperature changes.
    While sitting in a room If power suddenly cuts off then for few seconds things becomes invisible after reaching a threshold things can b seen even in darkness and eyes becomes adaptive to it.
    Hence, Human body is so well manufactured that we can get adapted to any type of environment with the help of sensory system without even much of efforts.

  9. Sensory adaptation is the way in which our senses adapt to physical changes in stimuli over time.

    * Our sensitivity to stimuli changes from moment to moment and accordingly our senses adapt to those changes.

    * A classical example of the sensory adaptation is the ‘light adaptation’ and ‘dark adaptation’. In light adaptation, when we move from a dark environment to a bright environment, our vision adjusts accordingly by constricting the pupil and in dark adaptation pupil gets dilated.

    * When presented with an auditory stimuli, in a rather calm environment, initially we would feel uncomfortable but over time, we get accustomed to the sound. This getting ‘accustomed’ is due to sensory adaptation.
    * On a hot summer afternoon when we enter an air-conditioned room from outside, our body adjusts to the change in temperature due to this phenomenon.

    * Manual scavengers work tirelessly in environments that are pungent due to the sensory adaptations made by our olfactory senses.

    * Absence of these adaptive mechanism by our sense organs leads to a constant distraction due to different sensory stimuli that we experience every moment

    * Citing all the examples stated above, we can state that human sensory system is adaptive in nature

  10. “The process in which the sensory receptor cells become less responsive to an unchanging stimulus is called Sensory Adaptation”. e.g.

    1. If one rests one’s hand on a table, one immediately feels the table’s surface on one’s skin. Within a few seconds, however, one ceases to feel the table’s surface. The sensory neurons stimulated by the table’s surface respond immediately but then respond less and less until they may not respond at all.
    2. We don’t hear the sound that the fan or AC is making in our room, after a while.

    All sensory systems display adaptation. The sense of touch and smell adapt quickly while the sense of pain adapts slowly. However, the process is very different in case of Visual modality i.e. things just don’t disappear if we are constantly looking at them. There are different kinds of adaptations that take place in the visual modality, called Light and Dark Adaptation.

  11. Sensory adaptation refers to the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to the stimulus that is unchanging i.e.,the brain cells begin to fire significantly less in response to that stimulus which remains unchanged. This adaptation is the reason for us to perceive the world around without any chaos.
    There are many instances of sensory adaptation in everyday life:
    • People who live by busy roads don’t even notice that there is sound of constant traffic outside their window, while others who visit find the noise annoying
    • People who use strong perfume often don’t notice the smell over the day, but other people they encounter throughout the day find the smell overwhelming
    • When we eat, the food that we put in our mouth tastes strong at first, but as we keep eating the same thing, the taste does fade
    • When we put watch on the wrist, we initially will notice it. As soon as sensory adaptation comes into play, we will no longer feel it on the wrist
    • Visual adaptation: This occurs in the form of light adaptation and dark adaptation. Light adaptation refers to process of adjusting to the bright light after exposure to dim light(Coming out of a theatre). Dark adaptation refers to adjusting to dim light after exposure to bright light(going into the theatre)

  12. Humans are highly evolved creatures with an innate tendency to adapt to the environment that they are present in. The most commonly observed adaptation is the light and dark adaptation in the eye. Rods and cones are responsible for ensuring smooth transition when we enter or leave a dark room respectively. It shows the innate adaptive capability of our body which is present in our genes and we don’t have to learn it externally. Adaptation is a classic example of how we can thrive and not drown in the sea of sensory stimulus that we receive in our day to day lives. Though most of the adaptations like light and dark, heat and cold,ability to concentrate in continuous noise are beneficial for our day to day activities yet some can be detrimental to our existence too. The olfactory adaptation by which we fail to distinguish the smoke present in the air can be harmful for our body and has been resulting in countless deaths in our country every year.

  13. Human Sensory Sys. is adaptive in nature, by this we mean that the human human senses when come across any sudden change, the human system tries to get a grip over it and thereby adapt to it.

    Human beings are blessed with 5 external sensors. These senses are highly delicate. To prevent and adopt the change, we often react or hesitate at first. The process of change can be seen in the below example:

    When we move out of a Cinema hall, are eyes shrink, ie, we are not able to adjust the sudden change. Within seconds, are senses (eyes) adapt to the changes. Same happens when we go inside. This is because of the iris, which controls the intensity of light, further, the image that is being transduced on rods of the brain is now switched to the other similar part,ie the cones. This process of changing ultimately leads to our iris and our senses adjusting to the sudden change.

    This is one of the examples of dark adaption, which comes under the category of sensory adaption.

    Thank You!

  14. Sensation is the impact of stimulus in our environment on our sensory receptors.When different forms of energy e.g. light,sound etc. falls on our sensory organs,they responds by converting these inputs into nerve impulses with the help of neurons through a process called transduction.

    Any change in surrounding environment causes neurons to fire at a fast rate.However,after sometime,the sensory organs adjust to the new stimulus and neurons firing slow down considerably.This can be mostly useful but sometimes harmful as well.

    When one puts ones hand in ice-cold water,She initially feel too cold to keep her hand in water for long time.But with passage of time,body adjusts and the intense cold come down to a level that is bearable.Similarly,Clothes touching our body produces tactile stimulation but our skin adapts to these stimuli and not distracts our attention.Our eyes adapt to brightness of our surroundings and thus help to see in dark as well. However,Drop in sensation of smell by 70% in few minutes may be harmful for human beings.A leak in LPG cylinder at home might seem to reduce when it is not so,putting lives into danger .

    With these examples,it can be said that sensory adaptation make a stimulus which is figure at one point of time to become background after sometime.And thus,prevents us from being overwhelmed by sensory inputs,saving a lot of our resources

    1. Keep it simple. You are not required to explain sensory adaptation in terms of figure and ground segregation. Just discuss the concept

  15. Human sensory system consists of five external and two internal sensory organs to detect the stimuli and respond to that accordingly.Given the range of stimulus available in the environment,mostly physical,it will be a herculean task for our sensory system to constantly pay attention to the all the stimuli at a time.May be that’s why our sensory system is having a feature of sensory adaptation which reduces its sensitivity towards the stimuli that becomes constant for a longer period of time.
    In short,our sensory system reacts according to the stimuli and tries to reach a balance that is adapt to the new situation as normal.
    For e.g.-When we listen to music at a very high volume,it first feels to be very loud and uncomfortable as well.But after a while our ears adapt to it and it feels normal however after the music is stopped it takes time to adapt back to the lower(normal) level of sound which is also adapting to the new normal environment.
    Human sensory organs are adaptive,help us to survive and feel comfortable among the stream of sensations.Sometimes it may harm us by adapting to a relatively dangerous situation but largely helps us to get through the changing stimulus in environment.

  16. Sensory adaptation is the process in which our sensory receptors adjust to the change in stimulus. This process is very essential in our day to day life in order to adapt to our surroundings. With continued exposure to change in stimulus, we often get adapted to the change in such a way that there is an increase in the minimum threshold level of our sensory reception.

    This can be proved by many examples:

    1. People living near railway tracks or near some industries initially might have experienced some difficulty living there. But with continued exposure to sound, they get adjusted in such a way that they don’t even notice the presence of sound when compared to a person who newly enters that area.

    2. Whenever we enter a dark room, our eyes take certain time to adjust. This is because
    in our eyes Rods are responsible for vision in the dark and Cons are responsible for vision in the light. So, Rods take some time to take command from Cons. As result, our eyes slowly adapt to the dark. This is called Dark Adaptation. Ability to adjust while entering into a bright room from dark room is called Light Adaptation.

    3. Whenever we touch a cool water, we immediately feel the difference. After some time we may not feel the same coolness because our senses get adjusted to that temperature. Same is the case with hot water.

    4. The amount of spiciness/sweetness in a dish we feel may not be same for the other person. This differs from person to person based on their adaptation level.

    These are some of the examples which prove that we are capable of adapting to our surroundings which plays a vital role in our survival.

  17. Human beings possess five external and two internal sense organs with which they perceive the world. This is done by converting the physical energy received at the sense organs into nerve impulses by specialised cells through the process of transduction. However, the environment around us is capable of producing an extremely wide range of stimuli. In order to perceive the vastly different stimuli present in the environment, the mechanism and characteristics of the specialised cells responsible changes in order to effectively receive and interpret the stimuli. This process is referred to as sensory adaptation. For example, we are usually unable to see anything in a room if the lights are turned off immediately. However once the activity in cone cells (responsible for vision in daylight) gets subdued and the nervous activity of rod cells increases, our vision adapts to the darkness and we are able to see and identify objects in that darkness. Another example that is observed is that of our response to taking a hot water bath – while the first few drops may burn our skin, but the temperature sense buds in the skin adjust themselves and we are able to take a bath in hot water.

  18. Human Sensory system is a system of sensing the stimuli information with the help of sensory process.
    Human sensory system is adaptive which means the sensitivity of unchanging stimuli reduced overtime.
    Example- When we first encounter ice water, our temperature receptors vigorously but soon after sometime it fires less vigorously and the water then just feels right, which implies that our sensory system adapted the stimuli successfully.
    Another example, when we buy a new pair of shoes or clothes we first feel uncomfortable but after sometime , our sensory system adapts the stimuli of new shoes or clothes , we feel comfortable.
    Visual adaptation- This occurs in the form of light adaptation and dark adaptation. Light adaptation refers to process of adjusting to the bright light after exposure to dim light(Coming out of a theatre). Dark adaptation refers to adjusting to dim light after exposure to bright light(going into the theatre)

  19. Human Sensory system is a system of sensing the stimuli information with the help of sensory process.
    Human sensory system is adaptive which means the sensitivity of unchanging stimuli reduced overtime.
    Example- When we first encounter ice water, our temperature receptors vigorously but soon after sometime it fires less vigorously and the water then just feels right, which implies that our sensory system adapted the stimuli successfully.
    Another example, when we buy a new pair of shoes or clothes we first feel uncomfortable but after sometime , our sensory system adapts the stimuli of new shoes or clothes , we feel comfortable.
    Visual adaptation- This occurs in the form of light adaptation and dark adaptation. Light adaptation refers to process of adjusting to the bright light after exposure to dim light(Coming out of a theatre). Dark adaptation refers to adjusting to dim light after exposure to bright light(going into the theatre)

  20. The human sensory system is adaptive which basically means that with constant exposure to the same stimuli, the sensitivity is gradually diminished. This is very important as otherwise our senses would be constantly overloaded with information. For example, during the summers I switch on the air cooler before going to sleep. As soon as I turn it on, the noise is initially very distracting and its difficult to fall asleep. But soon my ears (auditory sensory system) adapt to the noise and its not distractive anymore. Another example was when I started wearing a watch for the first time, I could feel it in my wrist almost constantly. But after a few days, this feeling diminished as my skin (tactile sensory system) got used to it. As is apparent, sensory adaptation is a very important phenomena that helps in adapting more effectively with the environment. It helps us giving attention to the more consequential stimulus and the other needless information is put on the background.
    However, sometimes it can come at a cost. For instance, people can adapt to the smell of leaking LPG and be unaware of the risk of a major accident. In the same way, our senses can adapt to the smell of burning and make us prone to a major accident.

  21. A worker working in factory over the time chose to ignore the noise, children in classroom stop paying attention to the events outside the class, we get accustomed to cold water for our baths in winter. So in a way sensory adaption is a good thing, as it reduces our sensitivity to stimuli, and prevents draining of our mental resources on it, like it would be very much distracting to always feel our clothes on our body.

    However, it can also prove to be detrimental as we may get accustomed to harmful events as well, like we due to sensory adaptation we stop dectecting gas/fire or any harmful chemical releasing in our surrounding. This is one of the main reasons in deaths of manual scavengers that they get acustomed to bad smell, and don’t notice harmful gases inside manholes.

  22. Sensory adaptation occurs as sensory receptors lose their sensitivity in response to an unchanging stimulus.

    Following are some examples of sensory adaptations:

    1. Vision Adaptation: When we exit from a dark room to outside, our pupils contract in order for the retina to receive lesser light.

    2. Noise Adaptation: We adapt to the constant noise within our environment like noise generated by room fan, outside traffic, etc.

    3. Smell Adaptation: After some time of applying a perfume, the wearer no longer smells the scent.

    4. Temperature Adaptation: Our bodies quickly adjusts to water temperature when we swim.

    5. Taste Adaptation: The initial taste of food is very distinct. As we continue to eat, the taste does not remain as strong as it was initially.

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