Emotions Posted on January 6, 2018 by Arun Kumar Psychology Q. What is Robert Plutchik’s model of emotions.? Examine the significance of negative emotions for human behaviour. 10 marks * Do not give introduction & conclusion for such a short answer type of question. Arun Kumar M.Sc.(Psy), UGC( NET), R&T Exp: 20+ Yrs, Founder -Beautiful Mind , Delhi Share Next Motivation Previous Emotions You may also like... Research Method Indian Freedom Struggle Intangible truths 14 Responses Comments14 Pingbacks0 Kanak Priey says: January 6, 2018 at 9:56 am Robert Plutchik was of opinion that emotions are evolved b evolution. It serve survival as well as reproductive fitness purpose. Although it varies across species and across individual but some common and basic emotions, which he called primary emotion, can be classified. This includes- Joy, Anger, Surprise, Sadness, Disgust, fear, anticipation and trust. He believedid that they exist in opposite pair like- Joy:Sadness, anger:fear, etc. Further he opined that they forms dyad (combination) to give rise to higher emotions, like Joy and trust leads to love. He also emphasised that emotions vary in intensity. Like if Joy is left untouched then it will be under ecstasy class of valence. Finally he designed a concentric circled diagram including all degrees of emotions, primary emotions and derived emotions. And he suggested “Emotion literacy” for good psychological understanding. Significance of negative emotions – 1. From above theory, the feeling of wonder or Awe comes by combination of two negative emotions, fear and surprise. Further evolutionary theory calls them as survival instincts. 2. Fear survey multiple purpose – Evolutionary psychologists opined that Human’s taste buds are aversive to many bitter tastes due to food poisoning problem in their ancestors. Even today it helps in identifying soiled food. 3. Negative emotions is helpful in keeping the arousal at optimal level on Yerks Dodson Normal graph. Such balance of bipolar emotions are also reflected in opponent process theory of emotion. Further negative emotions help in raising the consciousness and alertness towards a task and many a times its helpful in cognitive performance. It also dicipline the individual, the negative reinforcement and punishment generates negative emotion but are great tool for behavioral training. Studies suggests that those who lack negative emotions are generally careless and have less clarity of future, bankruptcy and divorce cases are more common to such individuals than those who are balanced by negative emotions. Thus negative emotions are not negative in the sense of its utility but just the opposite side of the pole to balance the human behavior and help in surviving and further thriving. Reply Vaishnavi Fulzele says: January 6, 2018 at 1:55 pm Robert Plutchik’s gave psychoevolutionary theory of emotion by creating 2D and conical 3D wheel of emotion. His theory suggests that emotion is a complex chain of events beginning with the stimulus that evoke feelings which brings psychological changes, impulses leading to action and goal oriented behavior. These emotions are basic need for individual adaptation and survival. He also brought forward understanding of “Emotional Literacy”(i.e. understanding co-relation of different emotions and how they are tend to change over time) through his wheel of emotions. Significance of Negative Emotion: 1) As opponent process theory of emotion suggests that an emotional reaction is followed by the opposite reaction. This automated mechanism is at most important for normal functioning of an individual. eg. Happiness is followed by sorrow. 2) Yerks Dadson curve explains that some negative emotions must by there to work at optimal arousal state. And perform to the maximum. 3) Robert Pluchit’s wheel also explains that by combining two colors we get new one similarly by combining two emotion we experience the new emotion. eg. by combining Anger and Joy we get Pride. 4) Negative emotion like Aversion, Punishment generate negative emotion and helps in adequate Behavioral training. Therefore, negative emotions are important for Human Beings. Reply sourabh says: January 6, 2018 at 4:04 pm Robert Plutchik’s model of emotion states that there are 8 basic, primary emotions that are present all the animals including human beings. These 8 emotions are bipolar in nature and are present in varying degrees of intensities. Other emotions stem from a mixture of these 8 emotions and in different intensities. Emotions can be categorised as positive and negative based on how we evaluate our feeling towards something or someone. So, negative emotions are as much a part of our lives as the positive emotions are. Significance of negative emotions: a. Emotions like fear, anxiety that are negative in nature are very much essential for survival. b. According to opponent process theory, every emotional reaction is followed by an opposite reaction. so, it is fairly natural to have a negative emotion. c. We tend to suppress the thoughts or actions that generate negative emotions. But, research by Wegner & Schneider states that this thought suppression would only lead to further increase in those thoughts and have the capability to change our behaviour. d. Research by DeNeve states that those who are emotionally stable and in perceived control tend to be happier. And for this to happen, it is essential for us to acknowledge that negative emotions are as much important as the positive emotions are. Reply Arun Kumar says: January 10, 2018 at 9:17 am Nice.. Almost suitable Reply Viraj Shah says: January 6, 2018 at 8:53 pm Robert Plutchik’s created wheel or cone of emotions which states that there are 8 basic type of emotion in human being which consist each 2 polar opposite.like Joy vs sadness,trust vs disgust,fear vs anger, surprise vs anticipation. Certain emotions are common in both human and animal. also states that emotion have evolutionary history and have evolved various form of expression in different species. Emotion help organism to adapt and survive in environment.Accordingly organism develop defense mechanism to deal environment.except 8 basic emotion all are derive from it via mixing of them like love is mixture of joy and trust.This mixing vary in terms of degree of similarity and intensity can be high to low.Primary emotion are idealized construct whose properties can be infer from various action.All this is demonstrated via wheel of various colors and intermixing of them. Negative emotions like fear,anger,sadness,envy,guilt are very important in making day to day decision making, developing survival heuristics and ego defense mechanism. for example research studies shows that when we are in negative mood we are very cautious and take every decision after thinking critically and assessing every potential threat against when we are in good mood. Sometimes negative emotions such as anger work as motivator for creating just society. for example imagine people fighting for their right without anger. In contemporary world we see many example about people showing anger about their government via progression, strike. Guilt is also very basic to built moral fiber of human being. research studies shows that adult prone to feeling guilty were less likely to drunk drive, steal, use illegal drugs, or assault another person. Reply Arun Kumar says: January 10, 2018 at 9:16 am Reply Navkaran Singh says: January 7, 2018 at 1:51 am Robert Plutchik’s model of emotions aims to highlight the basic emotions, their intensity and why we possess them. It links the presence of emotions to our basic need of survival and evolution. There are 8 basic emotions which exist in opposite pairs of two. Some of them are Joy and anger, fear and anger etc. These basic emotions can join together to form all other emotions like love is a mixture of joy and trust. If these basic emotions are left unchecked they get intensified as the time passes and can be harmful or beneficial depending on the situation. Significance of negative emotions: 1. Negative emotions act as a motivation to work hard and be ethical in organizational settings. If a person knows that doing corruption would lead to firing, the negative emotion of fear will keep him away from such practices 2. Negative emotions help us in our survival as feeling bad makes us realise that a particular situation or relationship needs our urgent attention. Another example highlighting similar thing is aversions. 3. Negative emotions of anxiety and fear helps us to perform better (Optimum arousal- Yerkes-Dodson law) 4. Negative emotion of fear and disgust makes helps us to shape our decisions based on negative past experiences with a person or thing. A positive thought of being too much hopeful can land us in trouble in critical situation. Reply Arun Kumar says: January 10, 2018 at 9:13 am Ideas are appropriate but Plutchick model does not explain why…. But you have written ( why we possess them…) it requires correction Reply AMIT SHANKAR SINGH says: January 7, 2018 at 2:40 pm Robert Plutchik’s theory of emotions is a descriptive theory which shows relationship between various emotions, mainly primary or basic emotions. The relationship is based on three factors viz. Intensity, Similarity to one another and polarity. Based on this, he constructed a spatial model with considering eight emotions as most intense. They are Rage, Vigilance, Loathing, Grief, Terror, Amazement, Acceptance and Ecstasy arranged in that order in the model. Similar emotions like Grief and terror are adjacent to each other whereas opposite emotions like Grief and Ecstasy are opposite. The most intense emotion mentioned above has been followed by less intense emotions in the third direction. This model emphasizes that emotions are complex and certain emotions like love may comprise of more than two primary emotion but these emotions will be similar. In other words, two opposite emotions can’t exist at the same time. It also says that emotions have adaptive values and have changed through evolutionary process. Significance of Negative Emotion- 1)Emotions like Fear, Terror are related to survival of human species. These emotions force us to move away from obnoxious or dangerous stimuli. 2)Emotion is closely related to motivation. Negative emotion like anxiety, jealousy motivate us to perform better in different field like sports,education etc. 3)According to Opponent process theory, a positive emotion is followed by negative emotion and vice versa. So, the opposite emotions try to maintain equilibrium in the individual. Reply Arun Kumar says: January 10, 2018 at 9:10 am Nice… Almost suitable Reply Bhavini Bargotya says: January 7, 2018 at 7:40 pm Robert Plutchik identified 8 basic emotions through which an individual expresses himself. These emotions are innate and form the basis of expression. The emotions being: joy, anger, surprise, trust, fear, anticipation, sadness, disgust; the first four being positive in nature and the final four being negative. He created a wheel of emotion where he distinguished between primary and secondary emotion. Secondary emotions were the mixture of various primary emotions. The emotions on the inner periphery (primary emotions) were stronger than those on the outer periphery (secondary emotions). These emotions correspond with the Carl Jung’s classification of emotions where negative emotions correspond to Jung’s introverted emotions and positive ones to extroverted emotions. Significance of negative emotions: 1. Cannon Bard theory suggests that we emotional responses are followed by physical state change. Negative emotions therefore help us to adapt to the unfavorable environment. 2. Cognitive appraisal theory suggests that our thinking derives our emotion and therefore our action. A negative stimulus is important to deal with an undesirable stimulus. Emotions both positive and negative are important to create a balance an also deal with various situations effectively. The faster the emotion, the faster the response. Reply Arun Kumar says: January 10, 2018 at 9:08 am Almost.. Plutchik’s model depicts the interrelationships among various emotions in a way that clarifies how some emotions belong to the same dimension and vary in intensity only whereas other emotions belong to other dimensions. This model helps us to understand which emotions are closely related, which are remotely related, which are primary and which are mixed.. Because of this understanding, now psychologists are able to work upon the ” principles of reciprocal inhibitions in therapy ” which requires understanding of mutually incompatible emotions.. Your point on Cannon & Bard theory of emotion requires correction. They did not propose that emotion follows arousal.. Rather they believed both are simultaneous processes. Reply Pooja Singh says: January 8, 2018 at 7:31 pm Robert plutchik described that emotions are biological in nature and are innate . They are directly related to enhance our survival. According to him , emotions haves these characteristics 1.can be positive or negative in nature 2. Basic (primary ) and secondary emotions 3. Vary in intensity 4. They are polar opposite Basic emotions are in pairs like joy and sadness ,fear and anger,acceptance and disgust and surprise and anticipation . Also he described that two Polaris cannot be present at same time for example you cannot be happy and sad at the same time. He represented this in the wheel of emotions which describes about the basic and secondary emotions ,the varying intensity and the combination of two basic emotions forming the complex emotion. Example like joy and acceptance for the emotion of love. Significance of negative emotions Negative emotions are essential for the human survival for example emotions like anger , or fear or anxiety helps to come out of the some harsh situations Helps to maintain the psychological homeostatis Sometimes negative emotions like anger or jealousy helps to motivate a person in the working organisation to enhance himself . According to yekes dodson law there is the need of negative emotions to maintain the optimal level of arousal for maintaining the pace Such negative emotions can be very helpful for balancing out the emotional and psychological state . Hence negative emotions helps significantly for human beings. Reply Arun Kumar says: January 10, 2018 at 8:45 am Nice answer..! 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