Indian Freedom Struggle

Q. Before the foundation of Indian National Congress in 1885 , these were several tiny but  important platforms that were used by the Indian leaders to raise the awareness towards societal and political issues. Discuss about them and specify their contributions. 7.5marks

9 thoughts on “Indian Freedom Struggle”

  1. Before the formation of the INC , Indian opinions were not organised but were rather scattered in nature. However there were definitely some platforms that were used by Indian leaders to raise the awareness towards societal and political issues. These include
    1.The brahmo samaj leaded by Rammohun Roy, was the platform which advocated religious reforms and advocated demise of superstitions and other social evils. It actively opposed caste system and child marriage.
    2. Pramahas mandali aimed at fighting idolatry and the caste system.
    3. The Arya samaj aimed reforming Hindu religion in north india. Arya samajists worked actively to improve the condition of women and to spread education among them.
    4. The establishment of the central Hindu school at Banaras, offered another platform to the Indian leaders. The theosophists advocated the revival and strengthening of the ancient religions of India. This helped Indians recover their self confidence.

    1. Partly answered
      You should have discussed about the organisations that aimed at political change in India. Justice Ranade’s Poona sarvajanik sabha (1875), Indian association of Surenath Banerjee(1870) and East India Association of Dadabhai naoroji(1866)…
      3 marks only

  2. British India confronted both societal and political issues simultaneously before advent of Indian National Congress ( INC ).

    It was R. R. Mohan Roy who drew attention of Britishers towards existing social ( women education and abolition of practice of sati ) and political issues, hence pioneer of political movement in british India. Bangabhasa prakasika sabha got formed by his associates. Landholder’s society by Dwarkanath and his associates provided for beginning of political organization and use of methods of constitutional agitation. Bengal British India Association formed was associated with understanding of lives of Indians and strived to work towards more peaceful and just methods to address concerns of affected. Merging of Landholder’s society with Bengal British India Association led to formation of British India Association whose political objectives included creation of separate legislature, separation of executive from judiciary and abolition of salt and stamp taxes. But above objectives got only partially fulfilled. The Indian League of S. K. Ghose was committed towards spread of political education among people. Indian Association of Calcutta by Surendranath and Anand Mohan Bose focused upon creating greater public opinion on political matters and to unify people of india. Poona sarvajanik sabha of M. G. Ranade worked to bridge gap between government and people to create platform for discussion.

    Several leaders like R. R. Mohan Roy’s book “Sambad Kaumadi” focused against practice of sati. Ischwar Chandra Vidyasagar had focused upon girl education. Jyotiba phule raised voice against caste oppression and supported girl education. Pandit Ramabai was a woman social reformer who stood for women empowerment.

    Sections of indian society under enlightened and educated leaders got mobilized towards demanding greater participation in political sphere for reddressal of their grievances. Indian National Congress provided that platform at an all India level ( consolidating existing platforms )

  3. Due to the rise of the indian middle class and intelligensia indian society from the early 18th century onwards several individuals and organisations contributed towards what became known as indian renaissance. Some of them were – Raja ram Mohan roy and bramho samaj , the group attacked bramhanism idolatry caste system women’s education etc. M.g Ranade founded the pune sarvajanik sabha to promote women’s education and rights of the downtrodden. Arya samaj founded by Dayanand saraswati was not just a religious movement but a revival of indian culture and an attack on traditional practice of caste system as well. Indian association founded by surendranath bannerjee was the 1st attempt to form a joint front for demanding rights from the British, several other reformers and organisations helped to create a conciousness in india about various problems and about British rule.

  4. Origin of INC congress in 1885 is not associated with the singular event but is the culmination of various events caused by various such tiny platforms by our Indian leaders that led to awakening of the people towards some of the prominent political and societal issues.Such podium that were used are as follows :
    1. Various organisations :
    APolitical organisations :
    Landholders Society ,Bengal British India Society ,Bombay Assiciation ,Madrass Association etc .contributed in organisation of the political activities ,political awakening ,feeling of oness etc .Some of these organisations like Landholders Society guarded class interest while the Bengal British India Society protected general public interest .Moreover the suggestions by these organisations like abolition of company’s monopoly of the salt and indigo ,increase Indias representation to legislative bodies ,increase in the power of the local government ,need for improvement in peasants condition .Moreover MG Ranade ‘s Poona Sarvajanik Sabha arouse the political consciousness of the people .Similarly
    Indian Association of Calcutta promoted the Hindi Muslim friendship,established contacts with the masses,hence raising awakening among the Indian masses .
    B.Socio Religious Societies and sabhas :
    1.Brahmo Samaj : by Raja Ram Mohan Roy contributed to the idea of monotheism and rationalism .
    2.Arya Samaj : contributed in improvement in women’s condition as well promoted education among them .
    3.Theosophical Society :
    Awakened Indian minds towards their rich ancient and religious past which boosted their self confidence .

    2.)Social institutions like press facilitated the exchange of thoughts on the large scale which led to political as well as social consciousness among the people .
    For instance
    1.sambad Kaumadi ,Mirat ul Akbar had nationalist and democratic progressive orientation .
    2.Bankim Chatterjees Anandmath ,immortal song Bande Matram .
    3.the Tribune ,The pioneer ,The Kesarietc played an important role I. Exposing the failure of British government .
    Hence all these platforms enlightened the educated minds and hence the outcome was the formation of the united India front in the form of Indian National Congress .

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