3 thoughts on “Indian Freedom Struggle”

  1. Socio-religious reform movements of india represented as Indian Renaissance Movement witnessed reformation activities in both religion and society.

    Causes of major socio-religious reform movements

    1. Political unity – Britishers had till 19th century consolidated their position and provided political platform as a reason for Indians to come together on common issues.
    2. Reaction against propaganda by Christian Missionaries – Making use of educational institutes, hospitals and charity Christian missionaries tried bringing poor and ignorant people into fold of Christianity. This was realized by both hindu and muslim sections of indian society as a threat to their traditional values and customs.
    3. Glorification of India’s past – Both western ( Max Muller & Monier Williams etc ) and indian scholars ( R. G. Bhandarkar & later Swami Vivekananda ) relooked india’s achievements in trade and cultural aspects. Theory of Europeans that indo-Aryans belonged to same ethnic group boosted morale of educated Indians against britisher’s racial superiority theory.
    4. Western thoughts and education – Educated Indians from abroad after returning to india realized how indian society was cut off from ideas of liberty, equality and freedom & got motivated to inspired people towards taking up cause that affected them. E.g R.R. Mohan Roy took up cause of sati and it resulted in legal backing to sati.

    Consequences – Both positive & negative contributions of socio-religious reform movements were witnessed

    Positive contributions
    1. Emphasized upon scientific and rational outlook.
    2. Created social climate for modernization
    3. Educated Indians converted religious and literature in different regional languages thus enhancing wider reach & encouraged for individual interpretation of texts along with simplification of rituals (based on reason & logic)

    Negative contributions
    1. Narrow social base as movements were restricted to educated middle class thus excluding lower caste people.
    2. Glorification of past was restricted in sense that it did not consider into its ambit art, music, literature and science & technology etc .
    3. Gave rise to feelings of communal consciousness.

    To conclude, net result of socio-religious reform movements was arousing people towards realizing their potential and demanding their rights from britishers

  2. In the 18th century india was a regressive society religion wasn’t spiritual it was blind faith and had been reduced to a host of rituals and practices which prevented growth of unity and equality. Colonialism had furthered the problems because it encouraged attacks on local religions while encouraging missionary activities a new educated indian middle class emerged at this time to challenge both the colonial mentality and regressive indian mentality this gave rise to socio-cultural reforms known as indian renaissance. Raja ram Mohan roy founded the Bramho samaj to challenge the norms prevalent in society . He advocated banning sati following monotheism equality and a host of other human rights and women rights . The samaj and roy were partly successful in banning sati but the practice continued similarly after roy’s death the samaj split into many divisions and reformers like keshub chandra sen even married his young daughter to the maharaja of cooch Behar but a lasting change had been achieved as more young people influenced by modern ideas tried to change status quo. Another major reform movement was Dayanand saraswati’s arya samaj. This was not just a movement to reform Hinduism but to challenge colonial notion that Hinduism was a regressive religion . Dayanand advocated going back to the vedas and challenged the caste system the movement gave schools like DAV and colleges as well and had ideologues like lala lajpat rai but during the later stages the movement went antagonist and even advocated for a two state solution during the upheaval of partition arya samajis participayed in riots as well. Aligarh movement was one of the most progressive muslim movement in its time it called for reconciliation of quranic teaching with the modern age it advocated hindu muslim unity modern education education for women etc . However due pressures from his own community and from the British sir syed Ahmed khan changed his mind and advocated complete loyalty to the British empire attacked Hindus and changed his stance on hindu muslim unity while we got a premier institution like aligarh muslim university the divide between Hindus and Muslims was never bridged and several members of AMU would serve as key functionaries to the Muslim league and aid india’s partition.

  3. The spirit of the 19th century socio- religious reforms began with Rammohun Roy’s creation of Brahmo samaj. The reformations aimed modernisation not westernisation. This was the reason indigenous people supported them.
    Causes
    Education and development of modern ideas. Those who got educated, started questioning the rationality of a practice. They denied to blindly follow the rituals in name of religion. Moreover they could themselves read Vedas thus could not be fooled by priests. Dayananda based his anti casteism on Vedic authority.
    Increasing level of unity among the masses. The post period of 1857 and increasing level of hatred for Britishers, woven the people in common thread for swaraj. This require reforms of unwanted practice and rituals that divided people. Narayan Guru said all people are leaves of the same tree, the juice of all leaves is same.
    Free Press which made available inspiring articles of Western philosophers and national heritage and glory. This fueled the cry for reforms.
    Consequences
    The reform movements minimised social evils in Hindu and Muslim community. It also helped in women’s emancipation. It was due to the pressure exerted by these reform movements that widow remarriage act, banning of sati pratha were facilitated.
    People especially from backward classes started questioning their subjugation and level of untouchability was reduced.
    The educated Indians started becoming rational and also contributed to advancement in Indian literature.
    Also contributed to rise in nationalism.
    These reforms however, sometimes overemphasised on Indian history and overshadowed many evils of past. Siddhi movement started by Dayananda aimed to reconvert the Hindus who have been converted to other religions. This caused regional bitterness in the society.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *