5 thoughts on “Learning”

  1. Learning is defined as relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs due to practice or experience.

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    This implies the following:

    1. Learning involves some change

    2. This change is relatively permanent

    3. This change is due to experience or practice

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    CHANGES:

    Learning involves following types of changes:

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    1. COGNITIVE CHANGES:

    When we learn something, it changes our:

    (I) thought: New information or concepts are added to our existing schema

    (II) memory: learning must be relatively permanent, which is impossible without memory.

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    Example: reading and typing a number on phone involves the short-span sensory memory. This experience can not be called learning.

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    2. BIOLOGICAL CHANGES:

    Psychologists have claimed that cognitive changes due to learning have underlying biological base in physical changes of brain.

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    Example: Muller & Pilzecker theorised learning which creates (physical) memory traces in brain.

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    3. BEHAVIORAL CHANGES:

    Finally, whether something is learned or not, can only be known if it is explicitly manifested as change in individual’s behavior.

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    If one is rewarded (or punished) for certain action, he’s more likely to repeat (or avoid) that behavior, which constitutes learning.

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    However, sometimes learning can also occur without visible change in behavior.

    Example: Latent Learning.

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    EXPERIENCE:

    Learning occurs through experience, which can be any event in which the individual’s action is reinforced (positively or negatively) by someone or something else (CLASSICAL CONDITIONING) or by the consequences of his own action (OPERANT CONDITIONING).

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    It may also occur by observing others get reinforced (vicarious reinforcement) through a type of learning called SOCIAL LEARNING.

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    But in each case, experience plays vital role. Changes not caused by either experience or practice can not be called learning.

    Example: maturational changes (eg, baby learning to walk) are growth, not learning.
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    Thus, learning refers to only those changes brought by experience or practice.

    1. Learning does not involve biological changes that you have specified. Only changes in behavioural and mental processes are attributed to learning. Please note it. Try to be more concise.

  2. Indication of change in behaviour is termed as learning. It is always
    1. permanent in nature
    2. does not refers to maturation
    3. it may be positive as well as negative

    learning involves changes due to expereince as
    1. we get affected by things which we see in our enviornment. for eg : earlier we may not follow traffic properly but by seeing others getting fined we start following it

    2. or change can also happen if we directly participate in those changes, for eg: we break traffic signal particular time and get fined, which will lead us to follow traffic strictly

    the changes which can occur are as follows:
    1. cognitive changes
    2. behaviour changes

    1. Concept is clear but specifications are not fully adequate. You may use some examples from classical and operant conditioning to illustrate and specify the changes.

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