10 thoughts on “Memory”

  1. LTM is the dynamic and constructive system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently. LTM is encoded in semantic and meaningful form.

    Characteristics of LTM

    1. Dynamic and Constructive
    The basic nature of our LTM is a dynamic one. As Bartlett stated that, “every memory is a blend of knowledge and inference”. Our LTM involves constructive processing i.e our memories are altered, modified and influenced by new information continuously.

    2. Symmetrical
    Semantic Network model proposes that information in LTM is stored in a connected and well patterned fashion. Memory is organised in terms of meaning and concepts.

    3. Prone to changes
    Our LTM also shows the tendency to replace and change some information at the time of retrieval as seen in case of False memory syndrome, eye witness testimony bias and Hindsight bias.

    4. Logical
    Our LTM also tries to add logic to the encoded information if that info has some illogical or strange ideas.

  2. Long term memory is that memory in which we can store immense amount of information over longer periods of time. In general, information enters into long term memory either through ‘elaborative rehearsal’ or through ‘automatic processing’.

    This information gets encoded in it either through ‘semantic coding’ ( understanding the meaning of something) or through ‘image coding’ ( forming an image about something).

    This encoded information is stored either in form of explicit memory (declarative memory ) or implicit memory (procedural memory) – that which can’t be readily expressed verbally.

    This information can be retrieved from long term memory whenever necessary only when all the information is organised properly or there are appropriate retrieval cues. Inability in retrieval often times doesn’t mean the unavailability of information but lack of proper retrieval cues to remember the information.

    1. Nice effort
      The answer has the related substance. It however should be more exact in terms of the nature and characteristics of the LTM.

  3. Long term memory is the one we refer in daily life as memory and we exist it to stay for sometime.
    There are some basic nature, processes or principles on which it functions, like-
    It’s requires encoding, storage and retrieval to be effective.
    1. Encoding may use maintainance rehearsal (mere reparation) or elaborative rehearsal (meaningful entry).The later one was emphasised by Craik and Tulving and provided in Craik’s model of Level of processing approach.
    It can also be sometimes automatic (without rehearsal).
    2. Storage- the storage works though transfer of encoded data from short term memory to long term through brain portions like hippocampus, amagadle, etc to the cortex region.
    3. Finally the retrieval need cues which can be any but dependent on the cues which were used during encoding.
    The characteristic feature of memory includes it’s infinite life and capacity.
    As suggested by Atkinson and Sheffrin model (now well established ), we never forget something forever. The Tip of tongue phenomena explains how the information is present even when it’s not recalled.
    To explain life of long term memory we can take any example of episodic memory of our child hood, and we may not forget it till death.
    Finally the long term memory behave like a system which is very active, constructive and dynamic in nature. We don’t encode the exact replica but a gist, self constructed gist. That gist may change over the time, a good example is changing statements of eye witness.
    Thus long term memory is the place to hold all our experience, a data to think, act and imagine the environment.

  4. LTM is the dynamic and constructive system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently. LTM is encoded in semantic and meaningful form.

    Characteristics of LTM

    1. Dynamic and Constructive
    The basic nature of our LTM is a dynamic one. As Bartlett stated that, “every memory is a blend of knowledge and inference”. Our LTM involves constructive processing i.e our memories are altered, modified and influenced by new information continuously.

    2. Symmetrical
    Semantic Network model proposes that information in LTM is stored in a connected and well patterned fashion. Memory is organised in terms of meaning and concepts.

    3. Prone to changes
    Our LTM also shows the tendency to replace and change some information at the time of retrieval as seen in case of False memory syndrome, eye witness testimony bias and Hindsight bias.

    4. Logical
    Our LTM also tries to add logic to the encoded information if that info has some illogical or strange ideas.

  5. LTM is one of the three modals in Information Processing Approach given by Atkinson and Shifrin.It acts as storehouse of the learning,experiences we come across in our daily life.LTM is dynamic,relatively permanent and has enormous capacity to hold information for infinite period of time.
    We rehearse information in order to get it registered in LTM. The information is stored in an organized manner as concepts and schema which make it easy and fast to retrieve information. While retrieval,Cues used while encoding are needed for better recall.

    Chars-
    1)According to Tulving,LTM is divided into Explicit and Implicit Memory.A person is able to articulate Explicit memory but not implicit memory (e.g. Procedural, Skill etc.) Explicit Memory is further divided into Episodic and Semantic Memory.While former is used to store life events of an individual with reference to time an place, latter is used to store meaning,rules, general knowledge etc.
    2)Encoding in LTM somewhat depends on context (Scuba diving experimemt)and state(rat in drugged state and maze expt) of the learner.
    3)Search in LTM is parallel.
    4)Loss of association,Interference and absence of retrieval cues lead to forgetting of Information from LTM.

    LTM is the memory to which we refer in common day parlance and this helps us to operate successfully in our environment.

  6. Basic Nature and chracteristics of Long term memory are:
    1. this memory store is not passive rather active. information stored in LTM goes much changes. It means that Construction and reconstruction processes keep going on.
    2. LTM has infinite capacity.
    3. search in LTM is exhaustive in nature.
    4. IPA saw it as a single reservoir but Tulving reasoned that LTM is not a single structure rather it consists of two reservoirs viz. semantic and episodic. later he modified it and deliberated that episodic memory is a part of semantic memory and another segment exists called procedural memory with in LTM.
    5. information is stored as symbols and images.
    6. information that is rehearsed upon in STM reaches LTM (IPA model) but sometimes information can directly reach LTM also eg. edietic memory.
    7. encoding of information in LTM happens in an organised manner. Operations of levelling, sharpening and normailzation operates to help better organization of information. Elaboration too helps organize information better.
    8. retrieval of information from LTM gets enhanced if better cues were generated at time of encoding.
    9. LTM shows more preference to semantic information as compared to STM which prefers phonetic information more.

  7. Nature and characteristics:

    Permanent: Our long term memory is relatively permanent if proper encoding is done and enough retrievel cues are present. This has been proposed in both Atkinson and Clarke-Lockharte model.

    Size: We can store almost infinite amount of information with proper elaborative rehearsal. Many researches have tried to find the size of long term memory as in case of sensory memory and short term memory which have a certain limitation in terms of size (9 for SM and 7+-2 for STM). Yet as of now no research study has limited the size of long term memory.

    Organization: Our long term memory is highly organized. On a broad scale it can be categorized into explicit and implicit memories which can be further subdivided into episodic and semantic in case of explicit and procedural in case of implicit. Hence unlike short term memory it is highly organised and elaborated.

    Encoding: Encoding new information into long term memory involves a lot more time and effort as compared to sensory and short term memory. It demands elaborative rehearsal and sufficient retrieval cues in order to recall any information for future use.

    Retrieval: Retrieval process is parallel in nature as compared to serial in case of short term memory. We can retrieve a particular fact from a sea of information with proper retrieval cues whereas it is lot difficult in case of short term memory even for a list of 30 words.

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