9 thoughts on “Psychology”

  1. Perception has been debated over its plasticity and in that nature vs nurture is most debated part. The nativist don’t believe in much role of experience however empericists gives following evidences and support to experience.
    1. Experiments on infant monkey, by depriving them of visual stimulus through translucent glasses is done. It was found that even after sensitive period they are able to learn most of the visual perception skills.
    2. Similar findings were there on experiments with congenital cataract patients.
    3. Further, it can be observed that higher order perceptions are largely achieved through experience. Gibson gave the example that a bird expert that better perceive the voice of a bird and decode that which species of bird is singing.
    4. We can see such observation in any teaching skill. A good teacher can easily perceive the mistakes in their students.
    Finally the question was raised by empericists that if experience doesn’t matter then how those monkeys lost their visual perceptual skill in first place and how they learned it back.
    However there is lack if outright evidence to say just experience determines perception but it’s almost established that indeed it plays a great role in perception.

    1. Discuss the effects of learning systematically at three levels of perception viz selection, organisation and interpretation

  2. Perception is the organization , identification and interpretation of the sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or the environment .Perception is not only the reception of these sensory signals but it is also shaped by recipient’s learning , memory , experiences ,attention etc .
    It has been observed that the experience affects the interpretation of the sensory inputs .With experience organisms can learn to make finer perceptual distinctions and learn new kinds of categorization.

    Following explains the role of experience in the perception :
    1. Instances like Wine tasting , X ray reading , music appreciation reflects the role of experience in human sphere.
    2.A study by Robert Annis and Barrie Frost clearly spells out the place experience holds in influencing one’s way of organizing , categorizing and interpreting the sensory input.
    Having better acuity for the horizontal and vertical lines than the lines at any other orientation by the Westeners(due to their brought up in carpentered environment ) explains the impact of the experience in perceiving the environment inspite of the presence of other sensory stimuli while those in born in non carpentered environment had same kind of acuity for all kind of the orientations .
    3.Empirical research specifies that certain practices like yoga, meditation can modify the perceptual modalities.These practices enable one’s perception skills to switch from
    external to internal signals which help one to better asses the visual contexts.
    4.A study by Mitchell and Wilkenson explains the role experience has in perception in humans. A person when suffered from astigmatism saw the environment in either vertical or horizontal dimension and when the person’s vision was optically corrected still the the person could see one (say) vertical lines clearly while other seemed blurred
    .
    However there are many other factors too playing role in influencing perception.

  3. Perception is the process of knowing and understanding the external stimuli that causes a sensation. Our sensory organs tend to receive all the cues from the environment and filters in the relevant cues and responds to it. The other information isn’t attended to and therefore is dimly processed.
    Role of experience in perception:
    1. Experiences can give a context to the stimuli we receive and help in the perception process.
    2. Experiences can define the perceived objects better and can facilitate learning.
    3. Interpretation of the stimulus is largely dependent on experience and perception works in a similar direction.
    4. Experiences can create biases towards certain stimulus.

    Experiences therefore play an important role in the interaction with a stimulus and the process that takes place after.

  4. Perception is a process containing three sub processes viz. Attention, Organization and Interpretation. All of these are affected by Experience.We attend to stimuli of our interest very easily, which is mostly shaped by learning. Similarly, Training influence organisational skills. e.g Identifying Illusions in space and high altitudes. Culture and Environment influences Interpretation .e.g.Thought of rectangular window in Carpentered society when one talks of window (Ame’s rotating window experiment).

    Role of experience on Perception has been proved through various experiments.
    1)Kittens which were exposed to only vertical sets of lines during their sensitive period of visual acuity had difficulty in adapting to normal world.(Blackemore & Cooper)

    2)Persons with congenital cataract,when cured,face difficulties in identifying faces and new objects whereas they are comparatively at more ease with stimuli used by them using other sensory modalities.

    3)Development of understanding of various types of stimuli like dance,music etc. is gained through learning and experience.

    4)Failure of Perceptual constancies like size,shape when unfamiliar/unusual figure ground relations are presented.(Ame’s et al Distorted Room experiment).This shows that perception is more accurate about familiar objects.

    Nature-Nurture debate is still on in perception.At present,it is accepted that both of these plays their part: maturity(sensation,cognitive) by nature and assigning meaning to stimuli by nurture

  5. Perception is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory inputs received from various sense modalities. But the way we select, organize and interpret this information depends upon various factors of which our experiences have a major role to play.

    Role of Experiences in Perceiving the World:

    1. It has been established through research that we have limited attentional capacity. We process the task one at a time. But we can make a better use of our attentional capacity through practice. e.g. an experienced driver can drive the car as well as converse with other people.

    2. Evidence from both humans and animals indicates that experiences can alter the way an organism perceives the world. The best example is the ” Perceptual Learning” which is an increase in the ability to extract information from the environment as a result of experience. For example:

    A. An ornithologist can distinguish between various calls of the birds but for most of us, these sounds don’t make any sense. It is due to the experience of ornithologist with birds.
    B. Many blind people move around in the world avoiding obstacles with surprising ease. It is because of their experience to extract information not ordinarily used by sighted people.

    3. Different experiences and learning opportunities available to people in different cultural settings also influence their perception. Hudson studied the perception of pictures by various subjects coming from various cultural backgrounds and identified that African subjects coming from a picture less environment failed to recognize objects in pictures.

    4. Study by Nisbett and Miyomoto revealed the role of early experience on people’s perception and explained why Westerners reward individualstic thinking while Asian culture favours group over individual.

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