21 thoughts on “Psychology”

  1. A more preferred activity can reinforce a less preferred one in many ways. A good example is reinforcing with secondary reinforcer using primary one.
    Shaping and chaining is a process to train or learn a complex behaviour through simple behaviour. It gives step wise outcome which lead to response to less preferred, secondary reinforcer and finally we learning a complex behavior.
    Students of California University were able to teach a rat to learn 32 simple behaviours which were less preferred to the rat. In the final step the rat unflaged the university flag.
    Here all of these were less preferred behaviour for the rat. It was the final primary reinforcer(food) that made it learn so mamy non preferred behaviour.
    Other examples include, habit of reading fast to gain fast knowledge even when fast reading is not much preferred, Learning on how to play guitar string without pick (with a fingure) to get more desired tone, etc.

    Reinforcement is about increasing the frequency of behaviour to gain a desired outcome. The behaviour may be to get a positive outcome or to avoid a negative outcome.
    The former is called positive reinforcement and the later is called negative reinforcement.
    A good example to explain is when we violate a signal.
    If our friends reinforces the behaviour by rewarding that how smart we are in skipping the signal then it may lead to increase in that behaviour. (Positive Reinforcement )
    Now suppose, next time when we skipped the signal, we got caught by police men and then presented in court.
    If the Judge asks us to either surrender the driving license or to get the training of traffic rules again.
    We may prefer to do this activity (response) so as to avoid losing the licence. (Negative Reinforcement )
    The negative reinforcement can further be divided into avoidance and escape learning.
    It depends on whether a cue to discriminate is available or not. If the cue is available then we can avoid the undesired outcome, like in the above driving example the Judge provided the cue in how to avoid licence cancellation. (Avoidance )

    On the other hand if no cue is available then we have to escape from the situation, like if the Judge simply ordered the cancellation of licence without any condition. Then we can’t avoid and have to face consequence till the time we find a way to escape. May be by requesting the Judge, then asking to Lawers, trying to do something to save the licence (Escape learning)

    Thus reinforcement of all types are used in one way or the other in our daily life and have different utility.

  2. Reinforcement is a process by which stimulus increases the probability that a preceeding behaviour is repeated. It is based on the conceptof operant conditiong which states that human beings tend to perform behaviours learned through consequences. Such consequences are called reinforcers. Reinforcer is a stimulus that increases the probability of desired response.
    Reinforcement is of two types:
    • Positive Reinforcement: It refers to adding stimulus to the environment that increases the likelihood of desired response. Positive reinforcers satisfy the basic needs which include food, water, also security, affiliation etc.
    • Negative reinforcement: It refers to removal of unpleasant stimulus from environment so that desired response tends to repeat. Negative reinforcers include those stimuli which humans tend to avoid so as to seek pleasant behaviour. Pain, discomfort are the examples of negative reinforcement.
    It is believed that humans repeat such behaviours that are reinforced. What is a reinforcer to an individual depends upon her own interests, motivation and past experiences. Therefore, such subjective issues should be taken into consideration and behaviours of an individual can be either positively reinforced or negatively reinforced.
    Most preferable activity can act as a reinforcer to less prefereed activity by an individual. Example, there is an individual who does not want to study and would love to play tennis. In order to make her study, we can use positive reinforcer-allowing her to play tennis if she completes an assignment.The same student hates to attend music classes, then, after the completion of assignment, we can tell her she need not attend music class that day-negative reinforcement. Hence, the least preferred activity of studying is reinforced by most preferred activity-Playing tennis

    1. Almost a suitable answer ! You must specify the order of reinforcements and how the more preferred behavior could work as a conditioned reinforcement. Also add some limitations of the Premack’s Principle.

      Scaled marks [@ 70%]= 6/10

  3. It is a scientifically proven fact that a positive reinforcement can help to substantially increase the frequency of a preceding behavior.This is evident from the ‘Skinner box’ experiment involving a rat.
    It is notable that a more preferred activity can act as a reinforcement more precisely a positive reinforcement as a reward to the less preferred activity being carried out. It is evident in our day to day life as well.For example when we reward ourselves or our children for studying well with an exotic food of interest, the behaviour of studying which is less preferred by the doer is reinforced and it’s frequency is likely to increase.Similarly the wages given to labourers for the hardwork they do is a positive reinforcement as getting paid is more preferred and to toil is less preferred.There are many such examples that support this fact.Thus we can agree that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred one (Premack principle) holds good.

    Reinforcement can be said as application or removal of an event or stimulus that increases the frequency or strength of a behavior that precedes it.There are basically two types of reinforcement viz Positive reinforcement and Negative reinforcement.
    Reinforcement is said to be positive when there is application of something,a desirable event to be precise, which in turn increases the behaviour frequency.For example when a father praises his daughter as his pride for achieving a gold medal in a sports event, it reinforces the behaviour and increases its strength.Basically something positive in reference to the doer is added as a reward to the relevant behaviour to make it stronger.
    Reinforcement is said to be negative when there is removal of an undesirable event or stimulus as a reward to the relevant behaviour which makes the behaviour more likely to occur i.e. reinforces it.For example when a convict’s sentence is lessened (curtailing the imprisonment) as a reward to the good conduct inside the prison premises,it reinforces the good behaviour.
    Whether negative or positive,the reinforcement always increases the strength of the behaviour and is highly observable in the daily events and conducts around us.

  4. Reinforcement acts as a powerful tool to not only encourage some behaviours but also to curb such behaviours that are not desirable in people. As we know, there are two kinds of reincorcement :
    1, Positive reinforcement : it is the process by which certain stimuli help in strengthening the response that follows that stimuli. For example, by rewarding children with a chocolate for doing their homework or giving them a toy for doing the work they were assigned, the toy or the chocolate would act as a positive reinforcer to strengthening such behaviours.
    2, Negative reinforcement : It is the process by which certain stimuli help in strengthening those responses which help him to escape that stimuli. For example, in order to escape the summer heat, we might prefer a cold drink or a cool shade. Here, the cold drink acts as a negative reinforcer to escape the heat

    In general, a more preferred activity is used to reinforce a less preferred activity. This can be illustrated by an example where, children are told that they would get to watch their favourite cartoon once they complete their homework ( least preferred activity in this case). Or we can take the case where elder people who are aversive to medicines but need to take them to stay healthy are lured in by saying that they would get their favourite sweet after they take this medicine ( least preferred activity in this case ). In this way, we can very well illustrate that a least preferred activity can be reinforced with the help of most preferred activity

  5. Reinforcement techniques are used to obtain the desired behavior. It gives motivation and direction to the organism. The task of reinforcing a less preferred activity with a more preferred activity can be defined as learning with a positive reinforcement and techniques such as programming are used for the same.
    For example, a child can be made to drink milk or finish his/her homework (less preferred activity) by promising him/her more time for outdoor activities, watching television (more preferred activity).
    These reinforcements can be used in workplaces where more leisure time is given to employees if they complete the designated tasks on time. The same can be used in a classroom scenario where students are given good grades and allowed more time in extra activities, if they obtain the target marks in exams.

    Types of reinforcement:
    1. Positive Reinforcement: Promoting a particular behavior by rewarding/praising.
    2. Negative reinforcement: Inhibition of a behavior by punishment.

  6. Reinforcement is a process by which any stimulus or event , increases the probability of the occurrence of a desired response/ activity .

    It can be of two types –
    Positive reinforcement – refers to the stimuli that strengthen responses that precede them.
    Food, water, medal, praise, money,status etc. are some examples of positive stimuli .

    Negative reinforcement – refers to the unpleasant stimuli that strengthens responses that permit the organism to avoid or escape from their presence.
    Intense heat, extreme cold , intolerable noise or anything that cause discomfort/pain are the examples of negative reinforcement.

    I agree with the contention that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforced a less preferred activity ( Premack principle).

    For example – A mother telling his son-
    -To clean his room (less preferred activity) first, then he can watch TV (more preferred activity).
    – To eat the vegetables (less preferred activity) first , to get Ice cream (more preferred activity).

  7. Operant conditioning has been used in a wide range of activities and reinforcing a less preferred activity by a more preferred activity is one of them. Also known as the Premack’s principle it implies that the activity which is high on interest dimension can act as a push for learning an activity which we tend to avoid. A common phenomenon observed by researchers is that during childhood when the child’s behaviour of avoiding milk is associated with his ability to go out and play. Mothers often put a condition that unless the child drinks milk (less preferred activity) he will not be allowed to go out and play (more preferred activity). It has been proven to yield positive results for the children. This process can be attributed to the shaping and chaining phenomenon. In the above example a child is allowed to play first which he thoroughly enjoys and then the activity of drinking milk is chained before the playing time of the child. Gradually a child learns that he has to drink milk in order to go out and play.

    Types of Reinforcement:
    Positive Reinforcement: The process of rewarding a response to stimuli with some positive change so as to increase the frequency of the specific behaviour. Positive reinforcement can be observed in case of government schemes like Maitritva Sahyog Yojana in which lactating mothers are given a cash grant of 6000 provided she registers their pregnancy with the government authorities. The scheme has been hugely successful as more and more mother want to avail the cash benefit and hence register their pregnancies. As a result more record of maternal health is maintained by the government authorities. Positive reinforcement finds a great deal of applications in various other social as well day to day activities.

    Negative Reinforcement: The process of depriving a person from a positive situation/thing so as to increase the frequency of escaping behaviour from that stimuli. A classic example is the case of Aadhaar linking to government schemes. The government is depriving people of the benefits of the scheme so as to reinforce their behaviour to get them link Aaadhar to their bank accounts, PAN, mobile etc. Such a situation works efficiently when voluntary efforts by the people because of positive reinforcement is not yielding desired results.

  8. It is a well established fact that an organism performs a behavior based on its outcome. And such behavior strengthens when the outcome is more positive, satisfies needs and delivers more pleasure. So this has been used to make an organism perform a less preferred activity by using a more preferred activity as a reinforcement. Less preferred activity is the one which delivers less positive outcome compared to more preferred activity.

    For example, Parents asking children to score good marks in exam in return for watching a movie or playing any game. Employers asking employees to work overtime in order to go for a project party. Animals in circus are made to perform difficult tasks in order to get food. All these prove that less preferred activity can be performed when there is more preferred activity as reinforcement.

    But this cannot be true always. The likelihood of performing less preferred activity also depends upon other factors like situation, motivation, biological factors. When the child is suffering from fever, he may not show interest in scoring good marks even if there is a reinforcement.

    Reinforcement is the process of strengthening a particular behavior of an organism by altering the outcome/consequences of that behavior. There are two types of reinforcement:

    Positive Reinforcement: The process in which a particular behavior is strengthened by a positive outcome like rewards.
    Praising a child for throwing dust in the dustbin and not on the road.

    Negative Reinforcement: The process in which the organism develops a behavior by escaping/avoiding an unpleasant(averse) stimulus.
    When a person tries to move out/escape from a suffocating room.

  9. It is true to a great extent that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity and it has some significant behavioral implications. The word ‘reinforcement’ means to strengthen, and it does precisely that. How? It strengthens or increases the frequency of a particular behavior.

    There are primary and secondary reinforcers or outcomes. The former is more simple/basic in nature and the latter is relatively complex. Secondary reinforcer acquires its behavioral modification potency through association with a primary reinforcer. For example, a child is unwilling to sit and study for a test. He, however, loves to play outside. The parent can use principles of operant conditioning in order to make him study (secondary reinforcement) by letting him play (primary reinforcement) once he’s done with it.

    There are two types of reinforcements – positive and negative. In positive reinforcement, behavior is strengthened when a pleasant stimulus is added or by means of some reward. For eg, a child getting an A grade for working hard for a test is more likely to repeat his behavior, or an athlete winning a gold medal after hard work and discipline would more likely stick to his routine. Whereas in negative reinforcement, a behavior gets repeated as some unpleasant stimulus is removed. For eg, a loud warning to wear a seat belt would encourage the driver to wear it beforehand to avoid hearing the unpleasant reminder.

  10. Reinforcement acts to increase the frequency of response to a stimuli which leads to positive outcome.Generally,there are very few items/activities like food,water etc. known as primary reinforcers which satisfy the basic needs like hunger,thirst,pleasure etc.And qualify for more preferred activities.However,there are many other reinforcers like earning money,performing various job etc. which derive their value from their association to primary reinforcers. Here,it can be seen that the primary reinforcers are the preferred activity and acts as a base/need for the performance of secondary reinforces,the less preferred activities.

    This can be also illustrated in following examples:
    1)A child who wants to play is asked to study for some time before he can go to play.
    2)An animal is able to perform many novel tasks in order to reach to food. e.g. A rat is made to perform 32 different tasks in order to get to its food.(California University experiment)

    However,It is not always possible to do so.If the organism in the situation interpret that any activity in the process is against its survival value/principles/biases,even the more preferred activity can’t be used to reinforce the less preferred activity. e.g. An employee is assured of getting promotion after doing certain job for his employer.But if the employee considers the job as unethical/harmful in long term,he may refuse to perform the job.

    There are two types of reinforcement.
    1)Positive Reinforcement-This is an outcome which increases the frequency of response to a particular stimulus.e.g. If by pressing lever,rat gets food pallet,it will press the lever more frequently.(Skinner’s Experiment)

    2)Negative Reinforcement-This is an outcome which helps one to increase its response to get rid of noxious stimuli.e.g.Rat learns to avoid electic shock by moving from metal side of the Skinner box to wooden side.

  11. using more preferred activity to reinforce a less preferred activity is very much acceptable and has been proved by research to be successful in general. it is also known as premack’s principle.

    operant conditioning basically uses this principle when rewards are provided for displaying a desired response. studies show that rats even crossed electrified hurdles( less preferred ) to get food ( more preferred). In schools, rewards in the form of tangibles or intangibles( praise) mótivates students to study harder.

    it is seen in social learning also. a child may start to display a less preferred behaviour just by looking at his role model performing it and getting a desired reinforcement for it. example learning to greet elders after seeing brother doing it and getting a toffee.

    however, it must be observed that what is more preferred to a person may be very less preferred for another. that many organismic and cognitive factors may intervene before more preferred behavior is displayed. for eg. a teacher may try to motivate children to study by promising to give a reward of a trophy but the child may not have any desire for such rewards.

    reinforcements are of 2 types:

    positive reinforcements where reinforcement increases the likelihood of response being repeated. for example:rat keeps pressing the lever if it gets food pellets on pressing it.

    negative reinforcement where a response is repeated in order to stop the likelihood of outcome. for example a rat may press lever in order to avoid shock that comes if rat doesnot press the lever.

  12. a more preferred activity can be used to reinforced a less preferred activity as the human behaviour because of reinforcement . offering the more preferred activity to individual as reinforcement in order to perform less preferred activity .
    EXAMPLE: a child may be like eating ice cream than eating lunch . here more preferred activity is ice cream which can be used as reinforcement in order to make the child to eat lunch which is a less preferred activity . the more preferred activity act as a motivation in order to perform a less preferred activity in several cases .

    positive reinforcement : is a procedure by using the stimulus to increase or strengthen the rate of specific behaviour . example: honouring(positive reinforcement) the most honest employee in a public institution .. in order to repeat the same attitude everytime in public institiution

    negative reinforcement : is a procedure by using the stimulus to increase or strengthen the rate of specific behaviour to avoid certain situation … example: completing the task given by the boss in given time in order to avoid scolding from boss ( negative reinforcement)

  13. A reinforcer is defined as any stimulus which increases the probability of the occurrence of the desired response. As we know that Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which behavior is learned, maintained, or changed through its consequences. Such consequences are called reinforcers. For example, a cat pulling the lever to get out of the cage and eat food. Here, food and getting out of the cage are reinforcers which increase the frequency of cat’s response to pulling the lever.
    Depending on the way reinforcers are used we have two types of reinforcements namely Positive and Negative reinforcements.

    Positive Reinforcement: It means that a response is reinforced by experiencing a pleasurable stimulus following that response. e.g. a child learns to do his homework on a daily basis because he gets cookies every evening from his parents when he shows them his homework. Here getting the cookies is the positive reinforcer.

    Negative Reinforcement: It occurs when a response results in the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. e.g. a child who hates being scolded by his teacher completes his homework before going to class. Here, scolding by the teacher is the negative reinforcer.

    Definitely, a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity. This can be seen in the case of learning through Shaping. e.g. training a dog to jump through a hoop (which is a less preferred activity) by letting him eat food after jumping through the hoop ( here eating food is a more preferred activity).
    There are many examples where researchers successfully demonstrated this type of reinforcement as done by the researchers of California University by teaching a rat 32 less preferred actions by reinforcing through food pellets.

    Having said that, in the case of human beings this is not always the case. Sometimes our motivations or other factors might not allow this type of reinforcement as seen in the case of mentally disturbed children.

  14. Experiments by researchers have yielded results whereby it can be said that a more preferred activity ( high probability of behavior )can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity (less probability of behavior ) and vice-versa. Principles of operant conditioning ( behavior is influence by results/output ) govern above findings.

    Case 1 : Psychologist David Premack’s concept whereby more preferred activities are used to reinforce less preferred activities finds its practical applications in day to day lives. For instance permission to children who love to play outdoor games ( more preferred activity ) is reinforced upon condition of completion of school homework first ( less preferred activity ) by parents to keep them disciplined and regular in studies. In another instance a mother who knows her child likes chocolate as best dessert ( whose consumption is more preferred activity by child ) allows child to have chocolate only if child has finished off with meals not of his/her choice ( less preferred activity )

    Case 2 : Where less preferred activities ( contingent behavior ) can be used to reinforce more preferred activities ( instrumental behavior ) – Timberlake and Allison’s Response Deprivation Hypothesis has been formulated on basis of their experiments on behavioral responses. For instance rat in a box deprived of less preferred activity ( running ) reinforces satiation of more preferred activity ( food/drinking water ) if and only if by engaging in baseline amount of food/drinking activity , rat is deprived of baseline amount of running required

    Types of reinforcements are

    1. Positive reinforcement : Procedure used to increase probability of response by following response with positive reinforcers (stimuli). E.g After winning science quiz and getting appreciation certificate from faculty led student to show active interest in future quiz competitions ( increased likelihood of behavior )
    2. Negative reinforcement : Procedure used to increase likelihood of behavior / responses after removal of noxious or unpleasant stimulus after response occurs. E.g rat in order to avoid shock learnt to jump from shock chamber to non shock chamber

    To conclude as human behavior is complex and dynamic, role of situations and motivational variables interact to affect both more preferred and less preferred activities

    1. Sir I am correcting my case 2 explanation as to how less preferred activity can be used to reinforce a more preferred activity or response ? I again tried understanding concept

      Experiments by Allison and Timberlake on rats (RESPONSE DEPRIVATION HYPOTHEISIS ) : Initially rats allowed to drink 2 separate concentrations of saccharin solution ( more sweet and less sweet ) in baseline test session and developed preference for sweet rather than less sweet solution ( normal response ). In experimentation phase rats after every 10 licks of more sweet solution were made to taste 1 lick of less sweet solution ( 10 : 1 ratio ). It means FORCING rats to drink more strong than weak solution actually DEPRIVED them of weak solution ( less preferred activity of drinking weak solution ) as was evident in their behaviors whereby rats completed experiments by drinking more of strong/sweet solution ( more preferred activity )

  15. Permack’s Principle states that a more preferred activity can be reinforced better than a less preferred activity. Human tendency is to feel ecstatic and inspired while doing a more liked activity. Their state of life is much higher(happier) than doing a less liked activity. The joy in a more preferred activity works as a driving force to get influenced strongly next time.

    Permack performed an experiment on kids where he offered candies and pinball game. Kids took either of the options. He noticed that kids who took candies had a much stronger reinforcement than kids who played pinball as it was fundamentally less liked by kids.

    The purpose of reinforcement is to get a desired behaviour by increasing its probability when subjected to a stimulus.

    A positive reinforcer is a pleasant stimulus which motivates and directs a particular behaviour. In simpler words, a process of encouraging and inspiring to attain behaviour patterns is called positive reinforcement. Eg: encouraging a person by offering reward like medals when he/ she wins in a particular sport say table tennis.
    A negative reinforcement is to stop or remove particular pattern of behaviour from behaviour so as to avoid an unfavourable non positive (negative) behaviour in the presence of an averse stimulus. It generally occurs in the form punishment. Eg: A student receiving punishment on breaking furniture in school. Here it must be noted that the intensity must not be mild it should be stern and strict so that the student does not develop resistance. It should be stricter each time it develops.

  16. The contention that a preferred activity is used to reinforce a less preferred activity is based on the PREMACK PRINCIPLE and is a highly acceptable as sometimes situations arise where the emergence of the desired behaviour occurs gradually and therefore it may become necessary to shape the behaviour .For this use of reinforcers become necessary(as spelled out on operant Conditioning also ).
    Example :In schools rewards in schools are given to enhance the performance of the students , similarly making eat to bar press (less preferred activity ) , food pellet (preferred activity )is given to reinforce its behaviour .
    However the above behaviour depends upon the situational and organismic factors also.As sometimes a person has a high intrinsic motivation that the desired behaviour is experienced spontaneously .Example : A student may have an internal inducement to be a topper of class so for him/her the incentives given or not given won’t matter.

    Reinforcement : is the application or removal of stimulus to increase the strength of the specific behaviours .There are two types of reinforcements :
    1. Positive reinforcement : It is the procedure used to increase the probability of response by using positive reinforcers(that is stimulus whose presentation increase the probability that behaviour will occur.Eg bonus provided by the boss wen the corporate executive increase her productivity .
    2 Negative Reinforcement : is the procedure used to increase the probability of response by removing aversive stimulus after the response occurs .Example : Aversive buzzer sound in the car as a alert to wear the seat belt .

  17. I do agree that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity. As the definition of reinforcer states that any stimulus or event which increases the probability of occurrence of a desired response is called reinforcer. Thus it is clear that the stimulus or event should be good enough to get the desired response. If preferred activity is being used to reinforce less preferred activity then it is more likely that the less preferred activity would be done in order to get preferred activity to happen which gives pleasure. For example- To clear CS Exam, becoming IAS and sharing happiness with friends and family is a preferred activity for every IAS aspirant and to study sincerely for 7-8 hours daily is less preferred activity. But the pleasure to become IAS and clear CS Exam reinforces to study sincerely for 7-8 hours daily. The same can be seen in the experiment done by Skinner on rat in which pressing a lever was a less preferred activity by rat than getting food which was more preferable to it. The rat learned to press lever to get food which also support the statement.
    Reinforcements are of two types-
    1. Positive Reinforcement – It involves stimuli that have pleasant consequences and satisfy needs like food, water, medals, money,status,etc. They strengthen the response that result in their occurrence.
    2. Negative Reinforcement – It involves stimuli that have unpleasant and painful consequences such as electric shocks, accidents, etc. They increase the probability of response to get rid of painful stimulus or to avoid it or to escape from it as soon as possible.

  18. Reinforcement is the process of application or removal of stimulus to increase the strength of a specific behavior in Operant Conditioning.
    There are two types of reinforcements-
    1)Positive reinforcement -If the response is strengthened due to a stimulus that follows the response .
    For example – If somebody requests to other by using the word “please”and gets what he wanted then the probability of the act of saying “please” to get something in future will increase.
    Positive reinforcer used can be Primary or Conditioned reinforcer depending upon whether the stimulus is directly catering the biological need or is indirectly fulfilling it.
    For example – food,water,sex etc. are primary reinforcer and money,praise are conditioned reinforcer.
    2)Negative reinforcement – If the response is strengthened as it results in termination or avoidance of aversive stimuli.
    For example -If a student says “sorry” and escapes the punishment then the act of saying “sorry” will be strengthened and he will use it more frequently in future to avoid punishments.

    According to the Premack principle ,a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity.
    For example – In an organisation a worker may work harder to get an extra day of leave.Here, enjoying an extra day of leave is more preferred activity but it can be availed only if he engages in a less preferred activity i.e. working harder.This may increase the probability of the worker engaging in hard work in future.

    However,there are various limitations of this approach and these are related with the limitations of the Behaviorist principles itself.
    1)If the less preferred activity is too aversive for the organism that he decides to leave the preferred activity too.For example even though almost all girls want to wear slim jeans(more preferred activity) but are not ready to eat healthy food(less preferred activity) because it is too avervise for them.
    2)Expectancy limitations- If the person expects that in a particular situation he would not be able to engage in more preferred activity even after the less preferred activity,For example – a worker may not work hard under a new boss if he does not expect that he will reward him.
    3)Quality of engagement in the less preferred task can not be ensured.For example a child may not clean his room properly if forced to do so before allowed to play.It is only if he himself realizes that it is important then he will do it properly and come into his habit.
    4)Biological factors may also hinder in consistency of behavior.For example even if a monkey is trained to act in orderly way(less preferred) to get a treat yet he may occasionally behave in disorder function as it is in his genes.

  19. A more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity (premack principle). This statement is based on the principles of operant conditioning in which reinforced behaviours are repeated.
    However to learn complex behaviours which involve a series of behaviours, giving primary reinforcement (i.e. Food, sweets) at every step will not be of much use because the continuity of behaviours will get hampered. In such cases , we can use the conditioned reinforcers to perform the desired behaviour. For example: chain of behaviours performed by animals in circus are trained in this manner so that they only get the primary reinforcement at the last step of the process (while conditioning, only last behaviour reinforced).
    This principle assumes human beings as passive animals who are always at the mercy of the environment for reinforcement. It doesn’t explain why humans at times can act even without any reinforcement and they may be intrinsically motivated to do a behaviour.And sometimes even the most preferred reinforcement can’t let a person do embarrassing tasks(Humanists).
    Types of Reinforcements are:
    1. Positive reinforcement- which increases the frequency of a particular behaviour on its arrival after the response i.e. Food etc
    2. Negative reinforcement on the other hand increases the frequency of a particular behaviour on its withdrawal. For example: wearing a blanket to avoid cold.

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