7 thoughts on “Psychology in 21st century”

  1. The beginning of psychology:philosophy,physiology:psychology did not emerge as separate school of thought till late 1800 century. The beginnin can be traced during early greek era.
    wundt is known as father of psychology. He studied consciousness but the methods he followed are largely unscientific today but it set the platform for future schools of psychology.
    1. structuralism:1st school :titchener is the founding father.As per this school, consciousness can be broken in parts. It faded away .
    2. functionalism of james: it believes consciouness exists as continual process.
    these two schools are old school of psychology.
    3.psycholoanalysis:the unconscious: it rejects the two school of psychology namely structuralism and functionalism and studied the unconsciousness . Freud is the founding father and it has profound impact in modern day psychology.
    4. Behaviourism: it studies human behaviour through scientific study. As per this school behaviour can be conditioned or learned and the same has been established by famous experiment conducted on dog by pavlov.
    5.Humanistic psychology: while 1st half of 1900 has huge role of psychoanalysis and behaviourism. the later part saw emergence of humanistic psychology that believes in free will and determination. Carl Roger is the founding father . Abraham Maslows hierarchy needs established how human goes for higher needs once basic needs get fullfilled.
    6. cognitive psychology:the mental process: it gives stress on studying the human mind and mental process like intelligence, language. Emerging brain imaging tools like PET, MRI helped experimenters a lot in studying human mind.
    Conclusion: Now most of the psychologists dont treat themselves from different schools rather they take different ideas from different theories and give more focus on perspectyive rather than school. As we can see, modern psychology is a science unlike what it was during its era of emergence, this eclectic approach is helping and will help psychology grow and shape itself in future too.

    1. Nice mapping of the answer area..
      Your answer is on the right line.
      Try to write directly and in your own words.
      Trends in 21st century are not given. Try to I. Corporate the points discussed in the classroom.

  2. With the advent of psychology from philosophy and physiology, it first laid emphasis on structure of consciousness, then on its function, then only on observable behavior and then finally Freud emphasised on importance of mental processes also. Psychology has developed in a tremendous way since then and its major trends are as follows:
    i) It is multi-disciplinary in nature, ie it imports from other disciplines also to understand human behavior.
    ii) Importance of culture is also being incorporated.
    iii) Complexity of behaviour is explained using multiple perspectives.
    iv) More inclusive and representative samples are used for study of behavior.
    v) Emphasis is more on application part now.
    vi) Advanced technology like EEG, ECG, fMRI are further helping in understanding of mental processes.

    So we can say modern psychology uses a more holistic approach to study the complex nature of behaviour.

  3. The present day Psychology is quite different from what the psychology was till 18th century. Philosophy and physiology both were the ancient field of study from where, it can be said that, psychology has its root.
    Wilhem Wundt and William James has founded psychology in 1875. From here the major trends started taking place in field of psychology –
    1. In 1875, Wundt set up world’s first psychological research laboratory in Leipzig and by 1881 he established a psychological journal which attracted the interest of student in psychology.
    2. Then in 1900, Ivan Pavlov began came with the learning phenomena know as conditioning and Sigmund Freud was the one who published his work.
    3. Structuralism was founded by Wundt deals with the mental structure and developed a new technique called ‘introspection’ which refers to self analysis by looking into oneself.
    4. Functionalists such as William James prospoed that psychology should study what the mind and behavior do and this came to be known as Functionalism.
    5. Later in this period, Watson pointed out that Wundt’s introspective method had a serious flaw which again gave a new school of psychology called ‘Behaviourism’.
    These coming trends show us that the psychology is way different what it has been in its early stages.

  4. Psychology has initiated developing at the realm of science around 150 years ago, before that it has been developed via Physiology, Philosophy etc.
    Earlier defined as “psyche”= soul, “logy”= study meaning study of the soul. Real journey began when Welhiem Wundt started psychological laboratory in Leipzig. Wundt took it as structuralism focusing on the structure of the mind, William James against it said it was functionalism focusing on the functions of the mind. Freud made its study of the unconscious mind by applying his principles to cure psychological disorders. People said it should be an observable behaviour saying it behaviourism. Then came cognitive perspective focusing human as information processors similar to computers describing memory, intelligence etc. Even the third front humanists were there they said everything depends on the individual that cannot be experienced by any other observer.
    As seen above one perspective could explain and can be said 100% true of nature, hence the modern psychology, it has more of a collaborative approach it explains a phenomena taking bits of all the schools above. The recent trends in the modern psychology are.
    -Cross and Sociocultural: focus on culture, traditions impacts on the behaviour of humans since cultures in Asia, Africa is different from Euroamerican ( psychology is studied and developed here) psychology is being developed here as well, human acts differently in presence of a group or other humans.
    -Evolutionary: focuses on the behaviours acquired through genes of the ancestors.
    -Biopsychological: focuses on the internal hormones and communications in a body which as inturn the external behaviour. basically neuroscience.
    Modern psychology is as collaborative with different disciplines as well, medicine, organisational management, zoology, biology, physics, mathematics, collaborate and share intel to find solutions for greater challenges.

  5. psychology has initiated developing at the realm of science around 150 years ago,
    before that it has been developed via physiology, philosophy etc.
    earlier defined as “psyche”= soul; “logy”= study meaning study of the soul.
    real journey began when Welhiem Wundt started psychological laboratory in Leipzig.
    wundt took it as structuralism focusing on the structure of the mind, William James against it said it was functionalism focusing on the functions of the mind. freud made its study of the unconscious mind applying his principles to cure psychological disorders. people said it should be an observable behaviour saying it behaviourism. then came cognitive perspective focusing human as information processors similar to computers describing memory intelligence etc. even the third front humanists were there they said everything depends on the individual that cannot be experienced by any other observer.
    as seen above one perspective could explain and can be said 100% true of nature.
    hence the modern psychology,
    it has more of a collaborative approach it explains a phenomena taking bits of all the schools above. the recent trends in the modern psychology are
    cross-cultural and sociocultural: focuses culture, traditions impacts on the behaviour of humans since cultures in Asia, Africa is different from euro American ( psychology is studied and developed her3e) psychology is being developed here as well, human acts differently in presence of a group or other humans.
    evolutionary: focuses on the behaviours acquired through genes of the ancestors.
    biopsychological: focuses on the internal harmony and communications in the body which as inturns the external behaviour. basically neuroscience.

    modern psychology is as collaborative with different disciplines as well,
    medicine, organisational management, zoology, biology, physics, mathematics, collaborate and share intel to find solutions for greater challenges.

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