9 thoughts on “Psychometry”

  1. Most central characterstics of a good psychological test is about its what truth it is going to test? How relevant, applicable and realistic is to achieve such truth at the same time If the score is trustworthy and it’s variance is logical or random. Technically this is considered under the validity and reliability of the test.
    However for good validity and reliability the test requires more character like-
    1. A clear definition of what it is going to test. It must be precise and objective.
    1. Valid construct- The concept to be tested is asking for exactly what it is supposed to test.
    2. Proper method for Item analysis like- an empirical method may not be suitable for a sample which is difficult to acieve and the group is very heterogeneous, here Judgement based analysis may be preferred. At the same time it can conduct a combination of more than one method to make the analysis more valid.
    3. To get a reliable test it must have reliable items across situation, temporal or any other important dimension.
    4. A good test is well standardised with proper norm to compare. Since psychological test generally lack zero to compare so a representative norm is very important for comparison.
    Finally Anesthesi has endorsed that test must be practical, e.g it must not be too long or too short.
    Validity is psychometric test should essentially consist of constrict valid and content validity (how truthful the content is towards the construct). However as per need more validity measures are used like-
    1. Face validity – It should seem as it is otherwise it may lead to response inhibition in subjects.
    2. Concurrent validity- applicable when we need to compare the results with results of already proven standard tests.
    3. Empirical validity – applied to Item analysis when items are analyseductive empirically.
    There can be more valid measures and it can be as many as the test needs specific validation like- some tests may need to validate it’s specific stage so it may conduct special arrangements.
    Thus validity is the most required need of a good psychometric test and its checked at multiple stage and at the end of the test in multiple ways.

  2. The central characteristics of a good psychological test based on which we tend to evaluate an individual are:
    1. Validity : a test should measure what it was designed to measure. A valid test is one which is precise.
    2. Reliability : scores measured using a reliable psychological test should be consistent across situations over time, although there might be slight deviations. Reliability is a relative term and it is never in absolute terms.
    3. Standardised: a standardised test is one which acts a reference point for comparison of further tests.
    4. A good psychological test should be viable (i.e. practical) as well.

    Different kinds of validity associated with development of a new psychological test are :
    1. Construct validity – what we intend to measure using a said test should be clearly defined.
    2. Content validity – test intended to measure content validity should consider all the factors responsible to get a complete and holistic result.
    3. Face validity – by the “look” of it, we should be able to tell what the test is measuring.
    4. Concurrent validity – results along which we measure for a test should correspond to the results obtained through other tests.
    5. Predictive validity – the extent to which we can predict results based on previously established measures constitute a predictive validity.

  3. A good psychological test should possess the following characteristics:
    1. Validity: The test should correctly measure the parameter that it intends to measure.
    2. Reliability: The test should possess temporal and spatial reliability when attempted across situations
    3. Standardization: The test should be properly standardized with clearly defined norms, administrative and scoring manuals
    4. Practical: The test should be devised in such a way that it can be conducted at a suitable place in appropriate amount of time
    5. Discrimination power: The test should be able to distinguish between individuals based on the parameter on which it is tested. It should avoid extremities of the parameter

    Different types of validities that need to be established are:
    1. Content validity: The items in the test should be related to the parameter which we are testing
    2. Concurrent validity: The test should be positively correlated with the earlier established tests in the similar parameter
    3. Predictive validity: The test should show high predictive validity about any future event based on the scores of present
    4. Face validity: The test should not include too many items not related to the topic as it would lead to loss of interest by the participant in the test
    5. Discriminant validity: The test should be able to distinguish between individuals based on the parameter on which it is tested. It should avoid extremities of the parameter

  4. The central characteristic of good psychologist test are:

    1. Validity: A good test must be valid. I.e. it must measure what it is designed to measure and must yeild an adequate results.

    2. Reliability: Reliability refers to the consistency, stability and repeatability of a result. If a test yeilds consistent result on number of repeatation then the test is said to be reliable.

    3. Standardized: A test should have norm I.e. relative reference point. It should have administrative manual and scoring manual.

    4. A good test should be as short as possible without compromising the reliability and validity.

    Different kinds of validity that need to be established are:
    1. Content validity: It describes the extend to which our samples of items or situation best reflects the dimension, domain or characteristic to which we wish to generalize.
    Eg. While taking a sample of intelligent girls in order to carry out a test in intelligence we must consider their reasoning, comprehension and judgement ability.

    2. Predictive validity: The test must predict the future outcome of an individual depending on the present status.eg. Enterance test must predict whether an individual is liable to pursue the course or not.

    3. Concurrent validity: When a finding of a test matches with standard finding. Then the test is said to be valid. Eg. IQ score of an individual must match with his performance. Then the test is said to valid.

    4. Discriminant validity: Test must be positively connected with test measuring similar attribute and negatively connected with all other test measuring negative attribute. Eg. A new test designed to measure creativity must have same result as obtained in various fields of creativity like music, dance, artistic, literature etc.

    5. Interpretive Validity: This refers to the extend to which a test and test manual facilitate accurate and useful interpretation by test users.

  5. The central characteristics of a psychological test are as follows –

    1. Validity – the test should measure what it intends to measure. For example, a test designed to find the IQ level of a group of people should not end up measuring their heights.

    2. Reliability – there should be consistency in the final value obtained from all the measurements and analysis. For example, to ensure reliability, there are several ways to evenly distribute the items so as to avoid any skewed results, like split-half technique, test and re-test method, etc.

    3. Standardization – a good test should be standardized. Parts of standardization include norms, administrative manuals, scoring manuals.

    4. Pragmatism – test should be of optimum length so that it is practical to administer. For example, if a test is too long, people may not be motivated enough to participate in the test, and even if they do, the result may not be reliable.

    Several different types of validity are as follows –

    1. Construct validation – it is a degree to which a test measures what it intends to be measuring. It is of two types – convergent and discriminant.

    2. Content validation – it measures the degree of logical and empirical relatedness between the construct and content of the test. For example, a test measuring IQ must not only measure verbal reasoning but also other related aspects of intelligence such as spatial, logical, etc.

    3. Criterion validation – it is the extent to which a measure is related to the outcome. It is of two types – concurrent and predictive.

    4. Incremental validation – if an additional test adds to the overall validity, it is said to be incrementally valid.

  6. Characterstics of a good psychological test :
    1.it should be reliable it means it shows the consistent result from one set of measure to another.for ex:if the test of extraversion shows the consitent result when tested and retested then it is to be considered as reliable.
    2.it should be valid means that it actually measured the characterstucs it intent to measure
    For ex: test to measure emotional intelligence measures only EI not anything else.we can say that that particular test is nt meant for measuring EI.
    3.it should be practical keeping in mind time and length of the test.
    4.it should be standardised means that it should be updated time to time ..can be applied for future application.
    T at last it should be free from culturql biasness.

  7. Central features of a good psychological test are –
    1)Validity – The test should actually measure what it claims and not something else.
    2)Reliability – The test should give similar results when the individual is repeatedly tested under similar conditions.
    3)Standardization – The procedure for administering and scoring the test should be uniform.

    The validity of a test to measure a new psychological construct depends on following –
    1)Construct explicitation – It have to clearly explain in detail the theoretical framework used by it to measure the new construct.It has to draw boundaries for what it intends to measure and how it is related to the intended construct and also make sure it does not measure some other construct.
    2)Predictive validity – It should actually be able to predict certain results in the real world based on the outcome of the test.
    3)Face validity – The items in the test should also be logically pointing towards what it intends to measure.
    For example If a new construct like Ethical orientation is to be measured then the test must measure ethical profile of an individual and not his intelligence.The results of the test should also be correlated with the individual’s actual ethical behavior in real world.

  8. The above answers are more or less appropriate. What you should note is that criterion validity involves both concurrent and predictive validity.
    For a valid construct, all measures are used to estimate the degree of content validity.

  9. Psychological tests are developed in order to provide a cause- effect relationship between two variable.
    Characteristics of a good psychological test include
    Clear description of variables under study.
    It uses contextual languages, symbols and instructions. For example a test developed for children should be more engaging.
    It records details in a systematic manner.
    It should control and minimize extraneous variables such as noise etc.
    It should have mechanism to maintain confidentiality of participants. For example following code words.

    Various validity methods should be used for a psychological test of a new construct:
    Internal Validity: Using correlation mechanism various questions/ parts of the test should be verified.
    Questions related to same domain should have clear positive or negative correlation.

    External Validity: External validity refers to pre-clinical trials similar to medicine field.
    here test will be administered on different group of people and should be checked that is the test measuring what it is claiming.

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