psychology model answer

Q1(a). Why is it important to understand psychological processes for other disciplines of social sciences?  10 marks. CSE 2015

Unit 1: Q1(a). Why is it important to understand psychological processes for other disciplines of social sciences? 10 marks. CSE 2015

Model answer Hints :
Understanding psychological processes are important for other disciplines of social sciences because social science directly or indirectly deal with human behaviours. If ignored, knowledge of the discipline can not be complete.
Economics , for example, deals with goods and services. If we don’t take human fear into account, we won’t be able to understand why the poors in the developing countries keep most of their money in saving account, rather than investing somewhere like stock market, mutual fund etc. Why they bank with government banks like SBI but don’t with private bank in their vicinity.
Sociology is study of groups. Sociological phenomena of group conflict and aggression have underlying psychology of prejudice and stereotypes.
Similarly, study of history do have perspectives. Ingroup bias may cause different interpretations of the same incident like Jallianwala Bagh massacre by the Indian and the British.
Likewise, other social sciences have to take behavioural factors into account while explaining subject matter of the discipline…
# within the word limit, briefly add about a few other disciplines of social sciences.

Perceptual Defence

Q.1(d ). Explain and critically evaluate the phenomena of perceptual defence. 10 Marks.( CSE 2018 ).

Model answer outline: Perceptual defence refers to the phenomenon in which people take more time to recognize some culturally taboo words or show perceptual distortion( eg they make perceive sex as set).

Originally, McGinnies, had reported this finding out of his experimental research in which threshold of recognition for such words were higher.

Its explanation has been offered by different scholars including McGinnies. According to McGinnies, this is like a defence mechanism which operates at the subconscious level. Subjects don’t do it deliberately and are not aware of.

In a follow up research, subject’s emotional reactions were also measured along with recognition threshold with the help of polygraph measures. It has been found that subjects got emotionally aroused before recognizing the taboo words.

Different interpretations came of this findings. Some see this as the cause of block in the perception and thus confirming the hypothesis of perceptual defence.

The critics however interpret the result differently. They argue how one could get emotionally aroused without being aware of the meaning of the words. For them, this is actually the case of delay in reporting rather than defence in perceiving.

To check delay factors due to cultural norms, experimenters asked subjects in the follow up experiments to just press a button immediately after perceiving the words. This time, threshold of recognition was relatively lower. So were the results, when subjects and experimenters were of same sex.These variations in the threshold, logically support the position of the critics.

Postman and Dickson research on the same, however, don’t show such results. They found that subjects were really not aware of meaning of the words but they got emotionally aroused. Maybe it is just unlike subliminal perception where we perceive things without being aware. Here, cultural conditioning of the perceptual system may bock perceptual processes without subject’s awareness.

Currently, like subliminal perception, we do think of perceptual defence as ” is this a myth or reality”.

Psychology CSE’16 : Model Answer

Q.1(b).  How can the psychological well being of service professional be promoted? Discuss. 10 marks The approach: First you should clarify the meaning of psychological well being, specify the typical problems of service professionals in this regard and then suggest behavioural measures to lower the problems and enhance well being. The answer : Psychological well being is as important for the overall happiness of an individual as are the material and social well beings. Seligman.M describes psychological well being as how happy an individual  feels with himself and his environment. There are several internal and external determinants of psychological well beings. The Service professionals like a doctor, a CA, a counsellor, a consultant, etc work in the varied condition but they have something in common. They all deal with deal with people and their problems directly or indirectly. The respective technical abilities and skills are must as studies reveal that a big source of stress in an organisation is the lack of knowledge, ability and skills. Many professionals don’t have adequate knowledge and skills to deal with the tasks successfully. Imparting knowledge and training could be of great help for the service professionals. Improving outside condition is equally important. The lack of equity in rewards and remuneration among the coworkers give birth to frustration. ( Adam’s model). Role ambiguity is another source of stress in the professionals. When a doctor is asked to do admin work due to shortage of staffs in an organisation, he may feel dissatisfied. Time is another common factor. Service professionals often work with some deadlines. This creates huge pressure and hampers well being. Training for effective time management helps a lot in controlling stress. In  brief we can say that inappropriate skills,  attitude and social – physical environment are responsible for the poor psychological well being. Training for skills and suitable attitude could help at least in part  in improving well being of the professionals. It should be complemented with suitable change in the work environment.        

Psychology CSE’16: Model Answer

 

Q.Explain how fundamental understanding of psychology is helpful in the resolution of societal problems​.10 marks. (CSE 2016 )

 

Model answer:

The Right Approach to the question : As this question carries only 10 marks , we must not write any introduction and answer the question as directly as possible. We need not to define but clarify  the meaning of social problems. The answer must show that proper handling of a social problem requires the knowledge of the fundamental principles of psychology which are put into application to work out the most scientific solution.

The Answer :

Social problems are very complex in nature and often require interdisciplinary approach to deal with them. Psychological principles of behaviour are required to understand  the behavioural aspects of associated with the problem.

Smoking is one of the big causes​ behind oral cancer which is becoming a social problem . To know the cause of this problem we must focus on the question” why , despite having awareness of the probable consequences, a person keeps smoking. The fundamental principle of motivation help us to understand the psychology of addiction. The positive feelings caused by nicotine in the beginning is reinforcing . When the person tries to give up and when he/she doesn’t smoke for a day, he does not feel normal but extremely  negative. This negativity, now motivates person to use cigarette.( Solomon).

Now a deaddiction program must approach the problem from the both sides to get rid of addiction. Therapy is designed in such a way that smoking  is neither reinforcing nor its withdrawal symptoms create negative drive or urge to reuse cigarettes. A doctor must manage the withdrawal symptoms either medically or non medically.

Without having the understanding of the fundamental principles of psychology we can’t get rid of such social problems.

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Psychology : CSE Model Answer

Q.Why is it important to understand psychological processes for other disciplines of social sciences? (CSE 2015-10 marks)

Model Answer by Arun Kumar

Social sciences like sociology, anthropology, economics and various disciplines related to society study various phenomenons from the different perspectives. Such phenomena however have one thing in common-they always involve human beings. There thus develop need to understand the different psychological process associated with them.

The voting behaviours of the people in a democracy, for example , is subject matter of political science. In political science studies, the fundamental questions related to voting are: a) what motivates people to go out and cast their vote even when the polling stations are far away and weather is not good? b) how people decide whom to vote and how incumbency affects their decision?

Here, without understanding the psychological processes like motivation, political attitude and ideology  , we cannot understand this political phenomena completely.

In sociology likewise, we cannot understand why the cases of nervous breakdown is relatively much lower in the joint family system than it is in the nuclear family system. The collectiveness feelings, a psychological process, need to be counted to under this phenomenon.

Knowledge of psychological processes is therefore important to understand the social realities completely. This is the prime reason we now in 21st century actively take interdisciplinary approaches in the social sciences.

 

 

stimulus deprivation

Q. What’re the major effects of stimulus deprivation on the cognition, emotion and behaviours of organisms? Answer under the light of research studies. 5 marks

Model answer outline: 

Living beings on the earth have sense organs to receive stimulation from the environment and  respond appropriately. The organism system is so beautifully synchronised with the environment that there appears complete continuity.

The problem surfaces when there’s some issues in the sensory channels​. Due to pathology or something else, if an organism is deprived of some stimulation , it affects the functioning of the organism. For examples, kitten raised in the restricted environment that deprives them if some normal vertical visuals stimulation, show malfunctioning of the cognitive system characteristics of “vertical blindness”. The kitten , though otherwise normal, were not capable to sense  and respond to the vertical lines.

The lab experiments on the human subjects who were kept deprived of a particular sensory stimulation, showed highened need for the stimulation and the subject were ready to anything to get it back. Their normal psychological functioning was disturbed.

Linguistic deprivation ( partial and quality wise) due to impoverished environment, shows some permanent damage. ( Burnstien). The case studies of subjects deprived of early linguistic deprivation also confirm the hypothesis of permanent damage for higher linguistic profiency. The subject however could develop some basic linguistic abilities. ( The wild child by Susan Cobasa’).

Complete stimulus deprivation has not been reported so far and we can’t conduct lab experiments on such issues due to ethical reasons. We therefore don’t have complete understanding of the effects of stimulus deprivation.