Q. What is Pollyanna Principle? Discuss the effects of mood on encoding and retrieval processes. 15 marks

1 thought on “Memory”

  1. Pollyanna principle suggest that human cognitive system has a preference towards more positive and pleasurable events or items than relatively negative one.
    It’s also called positivity bias as it involves selective recall of positive value items over the negative value or offensive items in an item recall test especially in delayed recall condition as some studies have shown.
    Effect of mood:-
    As the principle of encoding specificity proposes that we encode both information and related context( which includes both environment and emotional state) our retrieval for that information is likely to be facilitated if the mood or emotional state during recall matches to that of while encoding.
    For example, in a study which had subjects remembering some words while a sad song was being played. During recall, better retrieval was observed when subjects were apparently sad than when they were normal or happy.
    It shows that mood seems to serve as another retrieval cue for facilitating recall. However, studies have also shown that it is subject to other factors like depth of processing and nature of encoding. For example, flashbulb memories have shown similar recall irrespective of current mood.

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