Motivation Posted on December 2, 2018 by Arun Kumar Psychology Q. “you do not feel motivated because you don’t have goals.” Elaborate and examine the validity of this statement. 15 marks Arun Kumar M.Sc.(Psy), UGC( NET), R&T Exp: 20+ Yrs, Founder -Beautiful Mind , Delhi Next Environment, Ecology and Biodiversity. Previous Motivation You may also like... Indian Freedom Struggle Behaviour specificity Q.Distinguish between the quantitative and qualitative research studies. 21 Responses Comments21 Pingbacks0 Deepanjali says: December 2, 2018 at 12:53 pm The concept of motivation focuses on explaining what moves behaviour.It is one of the determinants of behaviour. Instincts, drivers,needs, goals and incentives come under the broad cluster of motivation. Psychologist use the concept of NEED to describe the motivational properties of behaviour. A need is a lack or deficit of some necessity . The condition of NEED leads to DRIVE. A drive is a state of tention or arousal produces by a need which energises random activity . This one of the random activity leads to the establishment of a GOAL. GOALS describe a desired future and these established goals can derive behaviour. Achieveing the goal,goal accomplishment further motivates individual to perform.We can distinguish goals according to specifity , difficulty and acceptence .A specific goal can be measured and lead to higher performance than a very general goal.A difficult but realistic goal can be more motivational than easy or extremely difficult ones. The acceptence of goal is very important as well, therefore involvement in goal setting is recommended which involves : 1. Setting challenging byt attainable goals beacuse too easy or too difficult goals dont motivate us . 2. Goal commitment should be obtained 3. Knowledge of results is essential that is feedback should be obtained So unless a goal is there we do not feel motivated. Goals can energise and direct our behaviour.The sense of accomplishment after achieving a goal acts as an incentive to make a change and you place yourself in a position of greater success.Without enthusiasm and motivation in life, we realize the lack of substance and meaning behind actions will result in a downward spiral toward failure and displeasure. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 9:15 pm Too indirect approach… Refer to its model answer Reply HITESH JINDAL says: December 2, 2018 at 1:52 pm According to Goal-Setting theory of motivation, having goals energizes you to work towards achieving them. But in order to produce effective behavior, those goals need to be specific, challenging and attainable. Ambiguous and unviable goals lack the capacity to pull required efforts from the goal-setter. Also apart from the goal characteristics, receiving feedback and degree of commitment to accomplish set goals play important role for the person to persist towards them. So as we can see, merely having goals may not produce the intended motivation. Moreover, our motivation is a function of several external and internal factors: – push factors (biological and social needs) – pull factors (outcome expectancy, goal setting) – intrinsic motivation. So not feeling motivated may not be only due to not having goals. Conversely you may have goals but may not feel motivated. For e.g. a student may have a specific goal of qualifying a competitive examination, but may not feel motivated enough to pursue it due to: – satisfied biological needs – low social needs (e.g. low need for achievement) – low expectancy and valence of outcome – lack of intrinsic motivation. So finally we can say that yes setting goals motivates you. But if you do not feel motivated, then in addition to not having goals, many other external and internal factors discussed above have significant role to play. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 9:16 pm Too Imprecise.. Reply Shalini Tyagi says: December 2, 2018 at 1:52 pm “you don’t feel motivated because you don’t have goal” Cognitive factors play a crucial role in motivation.Goal settings are the cognitive representations of a goal which is to be achieved as the end result of an action.Human beings are rational beings and hence need logic and reason to pursue a behavior.Goals help in providing this logic or reason. Motivation is simply focused on what moves our behavior. This ” what ” is the driving force which is given by goal setting. Without a goal a person has no reason to remain motivated or even to initiate an action. For ex. A student has a goal of getting A grade in exams which motivates him to study and behave in a certain way. Certain conditions ( whether it is task Oriented or ego oriented goal) are vital for boosting motivation.A specific, challenging yet attainable goal is more helpful in effective motivation nd sustaining it till the goal is achieved.Infact goal might be set by someone else or by self but then person’s own commitment to it is very important to feel motivated to get it because having own control and interest over it is crucial. The above statement is validated by several research findings. Chokar and Wallin found that employees compliance to safety behavior in a manufacturing factory was 65%.it increased to 80% when highly specific but attainable goals ,so as to make them stay committed ,were given.also visible feedback was provided later which in turn increased the compliance to more than 80% with sharp reduction in accidents. Also Locke and others found that effective goal setting produce lasting beneficial effects and act as powerful tool for sustaining motivation and performance. Wood and Locke found that with goals people perform better rather than when simply told to “do your best”. We see that though a person might do a task for basic reasons but with goals the reasons and motivation are very concrete strong and lasting which leades to impressive performance. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 9:20 pm The framework and content are almost appropriate but the answer as a whole requires refinement and precision. Read the related theories. Reply Shreya Rathi says: December 2, 2018 at 2:44 pm Motivation is what causes us to act. It is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains our behavior. Human motivation is complex. By analysing the larger picture, we find that human beings are motivated by variety of reasons that can be instinctual, social, spiritual in nature or even in combinations of two or three. Also it is affected by intrinsic ( internally rejoicing) and extrinsic factors( external rewards such as bonus) Goals are the ideas of future desired results we wish to attain. If we analyze theories of goal setting theory, incentive theory and concepts of goal-in-path, SMART goals, Our “Pursuit of Goals” works manifolds in motivating us. Goals reflect values, reinforce our ideas of what our ideal self might be, help us compensate for feelings of inferiority, shield us from pain, give meaning to the present, and give hope for the future. A person who has set no goals, experience confusion which leading to haphazard working style. With no short and long term aims, motivational levels in the longer run, and depletes chances of success also. WE are COGNITIVE beings.We tend to reason about our doings. When goals are backed with proper REASONS that motivates us very much. Therefore, it is important that when we set goals, they should be *rational and clear*cause clarity motivates removing ambiguities , laden with *specific* and *measurable*steps which motivates more as per goal-in-path theory, and setting *realistic* and *time bound*goals makes them achievable and reaching them leads to increase in skill set and feeling of success and well-being that will have multiplier effect on our motivation. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 9:23 pm Elaboration is appropriate. Validation requires more specific evidences. Reply Hema says: December 2, 2018 at 6:20 pm Motivation is the underlying force that drives one to reach a goal. The goal can be to satisfy one’s basic need or growth need(maslows theory of hierarchy). The goal can be to satisfy one’s self interest(intrinsic) or to get external reward or avoid punishment(extrinsic). Eg: Drinking water(behavior) to quench(goal) thirst(motive), studying hard(motivated behavior) to clear an exam(goal) etc.., Thus, whatever the goal is, it is needed to provide motivation. When there are no such goals, it leaves no motive to carry out an action. Eg: people not willing to wake up when they have no work(goal), lack of attention in class when one has no goal to get good marks etc.., This is vaildated through Goal setting theory. It explains that goals influence motivation to a greater extent. This was proved through an experiment where participants performed better when they were given specific goals than when simply told “do your best”. Also, goals boost performance when it is highly specific, challenging and attainable. However, there can be other reasons for lack of motivation like : 1. Physiological reasons : when one’s body creates no need, a goal may not be set to satisfy the need. Here it is not the absence of goal but absence of need that leads to lack of motivation. eg: person with a damage in ventro medial hippocampus may not stop eating, not attentive in class because of hyper attention deficit disorder etc. 2. Cultural reasons : when there is no social acceptance of one’s goals, one may not be motivated. Here one has goals but no motivation. Eg: a child forced to study but interested in sports will show no motivation in studying. 3. Cognitive reasons : as per expectancy theory, not just goals but expectation of outcomes (incentives) pulls one to do a work. Research findings on organisational psychology say it is not just goals but expectation, instrumentality and valence that have a greater role in providing motivation. Human motivation is a complex behavior. Though all motivated behaviors are goal-directed, lack of motivation can not be attributed only to absence of goals. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 9:26 pm Validation requires empirical evidences. Apart from validating through different theories, research about specific that validate this this statement. And don’t forget to be more exact in argument Reply Saurav Singh says: December 2, 2018 at 6:29 pm Motivation is a persistent force which is goal directed in nature. The goal guides our behaviour towards it. We all have set becoming IAS as a goal, therefore we feel motivated to prepare for this exam. Incentive approach to motivation also explains that the goal and its incentives, motivates us to perform in a certain way. Moreover it’s not only the goal but also the expectancy of achievement of that goal motivates us to work in the desired direction. For example, Advertising industry makes use of this approach to lure customers with exciting rewards. The incentives of lotteries motivates gamblers to indulge in gambling activity. McClelland’s Achievement motive, which states that individuals sets goal according to cultural norms, is also goal directed in nature. A goal is set through evaluation of social conditions and incentives towards it. Even recent theories of intrinsic motivation tends to explain motivation through cognitive concepts, because understanding of human motivation is a complex process in comparison to other organisms. The persistence of motivation is also consistent upon the internal factors like individual’s self efficacy and the discrepancy between self efficacy and goal. Though it’s not that we only feel motivated when we have goal or vice versa. The push factors also works for human motivation. The instinct theory and Drive-Reduction theory given by McDougall and Clarke Hull explains this, that it’s not only the goal but also the need that pushes us towards the goal. Here motivation is not the goal but to reduce the drive. Therefore we can say that we don’t feel motivated because we don’t have goal, is true to n extent when we are evaluative about our goal as an external perspective and thus the incentives attached to our goal in combination of our self efficacy decides the degree of our motivation. It is a complex process of human motivation which involves superior use of cognitive abilities to evaluate our goal and thus this process is mostly dominated by humans. The statement, though lacks validity when we seek to explain the motives, instigated through our drives which are wired through evolution and biological needs, and needs immediate gratification, and is also universal for all living organisms. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 9:28 pm Elaborate discussion.. almost appropriate. Validation requires improvement Reply Ritika Sood says: December 2, 2018 at 7:25 pm Motivation is underlying reason which brings about change in human behaviour. Motivation is mostly goal oriented. The need to fulfill certain desire pushes, motivates a person to act. Motivation is a process by which a person engages in some work, begins, maintain and direct energy toward some goal. This goal is usually the need of a person. Need denotes lack of something. This need drives the person in arousal state. Energised person performs the activity to achieve goal and return to balanced state. Biological needs like thirst, hunger, sex all drives a person to fulfill the particular need and act in a way to achieve that need. Psychological needs love, affiliation, intimacy, power etc directs a person to achieve these goals. Eg, A person working in a corporate company, keeps roaming around the working space talking to his co-workers. His goal is to form friendship with others, he will continue to do until he achieves his motive. Characteristics of goal oriented motivation is: 1.Higher tolerance: in the above eg. person might find certain co-works annoying. Yet he continues to talk. 2. Energised: person is high in energy to achieve the goal. 3. Persistence: person will not stop until goal is achieved. However not all motivations are goal-oriented. People often engage in activities that do not have clear purpose. Out of curiosity, curiosity to explore drives a person but to get some kind of pleasure out of it. People tend to seek novel experience, gain pleasure by obtaining information etc which motivates a person to act. Hence, curiosity stimulates to explore the environment, ignorance about unexplored things drives a person. Eg. Many innovations and discovery were made out curiosity and were not a set goal to achieve. Hence, we can say goal oriented motivation helps a person to move in one direction which helps in fulfillment of the goal. Yet many motives are not goal oriented. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 9:31 pm Be more direct in approach. Content is relevant but it requires tailoring. Reply Dolly says: December 2, 2018 at 9:46 pm Motivation is the motive behind action. There is need which drives every action. The need can be of various types like basic, love, esteem, belongingness,etc. Path goal theory is the theory of motivation which states that if there exists a goal and there is a path too to achieve that goal then there is more motivation and more chances that it will be achieved. Eg. If a person aims that he wants to becomes millionaire and the other aims that he will open a firm after doing MBA and internship. Then research indicates that chances are more in the latter case than the former that the goal will be achieved. When there are SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, rational, time bound) goals then they are more achievable. The formula of SMART goals highlights its scientific and objective nature. This further leads to enhanced intrinsic motivation , the self guiding force behind every such set action. A kind of leadership develops in the person in the course of achieving the goal which enhances self worth, self confidence. These positive feelings further creates push and pull factors to work hard for the attainment of goal . This viscious cycle goes on and person remains motivated to achieve the goal. “You don’t feel motivated because you don’t have goal.” This statement is true and it holds validity due to aforesaid examples and explanations. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 2, 2018 at 10:21 pm Model answer outline: If we analyse the content or process of motivation, we almost always find that it involves goal directed behaviours. This goal directedness is the hallmark of motivation. Be it instinct, drive, incentive or any other theory of motivation, every theory acknowledges the role of goal in motivation. A goal satisfies some drive . Can it induce drive in a reciprocal way? Researchers have analysed the process from the reverse perspective too. Can we motivate a person by making him set a goal? Researchers from organizational psychology found affirmative answer to this question. When workers were given specific target, they felt more motivated . Without targets, their motivation were very poor. Working on the premise of incentive theory, researchers regulated the valency of the goal and found a positive correlation between positive valency and the level of motivation. ( Vroom) Such evidences culminated in goal setting theory of motivation. If a goal is attractive & attainable, and when an individual have reason to get it, he strives for it. This is why cognitive psychologists state ” Goals motivate”. In 21st century, now debate is almost over on the issue if motivation is basically a pull or a push. Every motivation in human being involves some goals which play crucial roles. Basic biological motivations may be largely the push forces but even they involve pull factors. Just change the sexual partners, people get aroused more rapidly. So is the case with foods. Just offer a favourable dish, a totally satiated person may start eating again. Likewise, sale offers in the shopping malls motivate us do buy the things that we don’t have any plan to do. All these evidences validate the notion that goals motivate. Reply Pragya singh says: December 2, 2018 at 10:40 pm Motivation means to feel the drive to act. Motivation depends on different theories depending on different goals: Need theory Drive resuction theory Cognition theory Growth and survival theory . Goals plays vital role in Motivation.Evolution of world,Industrialization ,revolution even world wars happened because of some drive which is oriented towards some goal. Greek philosopher plato says “necessity is the mother of invention” England motivated to invent radar and save itself from germany is the best example of survival theory and need theory means survival here is the goal. Early men discovers wheel to make life comfortable. Comfortable life ,existence, happiness,becoming topper in class,taking risks,competiveness all are the drives which pushes and pulls human towards some goal. Person motivate to involve in drugs and alcohol again and again to reduce the drive,people do pleasure activities to reduce a drive is the fine example of motivation theory in which reducing drive is the goal. Goals can be different but there is always some goal behind every action.We get attracted towards big restaurants and attractive advertisements just because they are attractive and we take some action only because goals are attractive which is best described by Insentive theory. Examples like Priyanka chopra ,Saina nehwal,APJ abdul kalam ji ,AR rahman sir are the famous global personalities and we are the source of inspiration for people as they always get motivated towards their goal. It is not wrong to say that a person is like a kite without string which can fall anytime if he don’t have any goals in life as he will not feel motivated to do anything. Mother loves her child because their is some drive present inside her which motivates her to do so. Students choose tough examinations like upsc,IIT-Jee,olympiad because they feel motivated towards it and to get selected internal motivation is very important which they can only feel if they have some goal. Goal directed mind is always focused and doesn’t get diverted by problems infact it’s a solution oriented mind which can motivate person throught his journey of life. So overall we can say that “we can not get motivated without goals”in life and goals are very important also to live peaceful and happy life as it stops human to indulge in unnecessary problems. Reply Ashok says: December 3, 2018 at 12:51 am Motivation is motive behind our actions. It helps us to achieve goals irrespective of their significance. If you consider your present situation as a current state, a goal can be defined as a desired state that you want to be in. It is either reducing your deficiencies (drives) or enhancing your abilities to get a reward. Motivation helps us to bridge this gap by enabling goal directed behavior and there are two schools of thought to explain this. Drive reduction theory aka ‘push theory’ advocates, “we act to reduce our drive”.Drive is an unpleasant psychological feeling that we want to reduce. Our goals are basically fulfilling our needs. Motivation ‘begins’ with the start of drive and enables to act to fulfill our needs and dissipates when we reduce the drive. For example: A person when he feels hungry, searches for nearby restaurant to eat. He eats and reduces his hunger. Now, the same person will not feel same motivation to search for another nearby restaurant. Sometimes we are also motivated in expectation of a reward (Pull theory). We achieve it by enhancing our abilities and our goal is a state where we get our award or its expectancy is maximum. A reward can be extrinsic or intrinsic or vicarious. This theory also advocates once we are ‘satisfied’ with our rewards, we tend to show less motivated behavior. When evaluated separately, both the approaches seems to uphold the statement but it undermined two important aspects i.e. psychological makeup and biological factors. Behavior of near-dear ones and the attitude of explorers who put their life on line (e.g. John Chau) – can’t be attributed to expectancy of rewards alone… Similarly, people who are suffering from depression will not feel motivated even if the goal is right before them… and people with eating disorders tend to eat even after they are full… In conclusion, It can be agreed that having goals results in goal-directed behavior. Our motivation is influenced by our biological and psychological make up as well. Reply Tashneet bagga says: December 3, 2018 at 4:22 pm Motivation derives from the sense that we will get something from an experience.It is the fuel that drives your effort and increases or diminishes depending on whether or not you feel you will attain your goal. According to goal setting theory of motivation specific and challenging goals contribute to higher and better performance.Thus goals should be realistic and challenging .The more challenging the goal the greater is the reward generally and more is the passion for achieving it. Goals are very closely linked to motivation, so both long and short term goals help keep you moving through your different types of study in preference to other activities (which might be more enjoyable and therefore equally or more motivating).Therefore goals give you direction . Our motivation is influenced by internal and external factors. For instance cognitive approaches to motivation focus on how a person’s motivation is influenced by their cognitions or mental processes.Cognitive factors such as past experiences, extrinsic and intrinsic sources affects the motivation. Instinct approach to motivation suggest that organisms are born with innate biological tendencies that help them survive.This approach suggest that instincts drive all behaviours.Therefore one cannot say that he or she is not feeling motivated because he/she doesn’t have any goal. We come across many situations in our life where we have goal but we do not feel motivated.For example a person’s goal is to become an entrepreneur but he lacks motivation .We get excited and motivated to stick to our new year resolutions-to exercise more, wake up earlier, eat healthier etc but we lose motivation after some time. Thus goal can be an effective tool for sustaining motivation but despite having goal we lose motivation because our motivation is affected by factors like low social need, low expectancy of outcome etc. Reply Tashneet Bagga says: December 3, 2018 at 4:39 pm Motivation derives from the sense that we will get something from an experience.It is the fuel that drives your effort and increases or diminishes depending pn whether or not u feel u ll attain ur goal. According to the goal setting theory of motivation specific and challenging goals contribute to higher and better performance.Thus goals should be realistic and challenging.The more challenging the goal the greater is the reward and more is the passion for achieving it . Goals are very closely linked to motivation,so both long and short term goals help keep u moving through your different types of study in preference to other activities (which might be more enjoyable and therefore equally or more motivating) .Thus goals give u direction. Our motivation us influencd by internal and external factors. For instance cognitive approach to motivation focus on how a person’s motivation is influenced by their mental processes. Instinct approacg to motivation suggest that organisms are born with innate biological tendencies that help them survive.This approach suggest that instinct drive all behaviours .Therefore one cannot say that he or she is not feeling motivated becoz he or she doesnt have any goal. We come across many situations in our life where we have goal but we do not feel motivated .For example a person’s goal is to become an entrepreneur but he lacks motivation. We get excited and motivated to stick to our new year resolutions – to exercise more , eat healthier etc but we lose motivation after some time. Thus goal can be an affective tool for sustaining motivation but despite having goal we lose motivation because our motivation is affected by factors like low social need ,low expectancy of outcomeetc .Thus we cannot say that we dont feel motivated becoz we do not have any goal. Reply Arun Kumar says: December 5, 2018 at 5:26 pm Line of answer is suitable…The content of your answer however requires refinement. First two paragraphs are not required. Just answer directly. Elaboration means give illustrations and ideas to make the meaning of statement explicit and clear. Criticism in the validation part is valid. Add some studies to underscore your points. Reply Leave a Reply Cancel replyYour email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *Comment Name * Email * Website This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. 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