Q . What’s  attention? Differentiate the concepts of selective and sustained attention. 10 Marks

7 thoughts on “Psychology”

  1. Attention is a process which helps perceptual system to make a selection and sustain with that selection for sometime.
    It the very first stage of perception which helps us to prioritise the incoming stimulus, accept few and reject some.
    Attention is sometimes believed to a filtering process as explained by theories of attention system.
    Attention is driven by both external factors like- colour, shape etc, and internal factors like motivation and emotion.
    Now the attention is further divided as –
    1. Selective attention ( deals on spacial aspect of attention)
    2. Sustained attention ( deals in temporal aspect of attention)

    Further difference is that former is always happens before the latter one.
    Former helps in rejecting ye garbage and getting the useful information which later one just help to keep the useful information for a longer time.
    The factors which influence these two are also a bit different, for example- If we provide a periodic and aperiodic signal or information, say- numbers are displayed on screen, the selection system will give more attention to aperiodic symbol as it have elements of surprise and discrimination. However the periodic information if selected in the very first place then it will be sustained for a longer time by later system.
    Finally, these two tools of Attention works in continuity and a very syncronised manner.

  2. Attention is the ability of the mind to concentrate on one or multiple tasks.
    The aspects that influence the attention given are – selective and sustained.
    Selective aspect of attention is the ability of the brain to filter out irrelevant stimulus out of all the stimuli in the environment. The brain filters out all the information that is currently occurring in the environment and picks up only the information that is important since processing all the information simultaneously is not possible. Example, when a person is hungry his focus is mainly on food and filters out other information, but after fulfillment of his/her hunger drive he works over other tasks.

    Sustained attention is the ability of the brain to stay focused on one stimulus, irrespective of all the stimuli present in the environment. In contrast to selective attention, the filtering in sustained attention requires efforts from the side of the person. He/she would consciously ignore the ‘distractions’ and focus on the task at hand.

    Therefore, both the aspects of attention differ on the conscious and unconscious focus of the person.

  3. Attention plays an important role in perception. It is a pre-perceptual phenomenon. The process of filtering out undesirable information and selecting the important stimuli received from the wide range of our sensory experience is called “Attention”. It also refers to a state of focused awareness. It is influenced by both objective factors(movement,colour,size,novelty) and subjective factors (interest,motivation and emotional state)
    Selective attention and Sustained attention are two important functions of attention:
    Selective Attention:
    • Selective Attention focuses on stimuli of interest and other stimuli are ignored. It acts as a filter, to allow some information in and the unwanted information out.
    • It is a precursor for sustained attention and other higher cognitive processes
    • It is used to focus on one activity amidst several activities( Talking to a friend at restaurant or any party)
    • Selective attention allows an individual to select what an individual wants to pay attention to. This will help her avoid all the distractions
    Sustained Attention:
    • Sustained attention, also referred to as vigilance function is maintaining attention on a specific task for a long time. (This task becomes specific as a result of selective attention)
    • It is the ability to concentrate on a specific task for long time without any distraction( listening to a lecture, working on a project,giving an exam)even if indiviadual is exposed to repeated activity
    • Sustained attention requires consistency and practice. It is most beneficial in learning and working

  4. Attention is a process which helps one to focus on a stimulus/few stimuli from a large pool of stimuli at a particular time.Attention switches to different objects such as the object at centre of attention can go to margin and objects at margin come to focus of attention depending upon the need.

    Attention inviloves two processes.
    1)Selection of stimulus- which is affected by charisteristics of stimuli like size,colour,uniquenss etc. as well as organismic charisteristics like motivation,mood,expectancy etc of the Receiver.
    2)Sustained Attention on Stimulus-This is also afftected by chars. of stimuli like location,regularity etc and organismic chars like knowledge,experience,motivation etc.

    Selection is the preliminary of the two processes and involves filtering out or zeroing down to few stimuli from large space.So,it is more spatial in nature.It can be done at various stages from stimulus receptors(Early Selection by Broadbent) to Short term Memory(Late Selection by Norman et al).It also involves prioritizing inputs coming from various sensory modalities.
    Sustained attention delas with temporal aspect of attention i.e. how long a person can keep his focus on a stimulus/few stimuli as per demand of situation.It involves ARAS.Sustained attention requires a large amount of attentional resources on one stimulus and thus might miss few other stimuli.

    An example:A student in classroom select to attend to voice of Lecturer among the other stimuli like sound of fan,gossipping by classmates etc.This is selection part of attention.
    But how long he/she is able to remain concentated on lecture and not get distracted by the noise like cross-talk etc.This is sustained part of attention.

  5. The process in which our sensory organs makes a selection and then try sustaining the selected perception is called Attention.

    1.) Selection
    2.) Sustained Attention

    Selection can be further divided into two parts, internal and external. Theses are as follows:

    A. Internal Characteristics:
    a) Motivational Drive
    b) Cognitive Factors
    •Things revolving in your mind, thought process.
    •Memory/ Understanding

    B. External Char:
    a) We notice colourful things more.
    b) Bright Things
    c) Unusual things
    d) Moving things

    Sustained Attention can also be divided into two parts:

    A. Temporal Aspects
    Eg: Pt. is coming randomly.

    B. Special Aspects
    Eg: Point is coming in one corner.

    Moreover, it is observed that if it comes on regular instance of time, chances are more to sustain the perception.

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